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Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Welcome.

Welcome to Kediri.

By introducing the name Bambang Sunarno authors also introduce Kediri city as well as the historic birthplace and original culinary style Kediri, East Java, Indonesia.
This blog was established by Bambang Sunarno with the purpose of information, communication and knowledge.
In the town of Kediri, there are several historic sites and some of the history of Kediri.

Attractions including  :

Selomangleng cave.

Selomangleng cave.

Maskumambang lake.

Maskumambang lake.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes cave has been known to tourists, and is known by the name Puh Sarang Church Kediri. The tourists always visit every holiday or there is an opportunity to visit with family Kediri, while Maria Lourdes grotto is a site that explains in detail the crucifixion of Jesus and also used for the followers of the Christian ritual.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Waterfall Dolo very attractive to newcomers from abroad or locally to enjoy the beauty of the high fountain and splashing in the gentle breeze and feel fresh.

If you want to Kelud. 

the road to the mountain kelud hot water.

Please contact the Travel Agents are available in the town of Kediri and you will get a place to take you.

culinary seller on the street Dhoho kediri.

When you visit in the evening there is a culinary providers Doho line the streets until the evening at 24.00, and for the guests do not have to worry, because every time you come there is always the hotels were good and satisfying.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: 27 September 2019 at 23:16
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Friday, 27 January 2017

Did You Know About Leeches ?

 Leeches

Leeches are ' worms ' with suckers on each end. Leeches can be divided in a variety of sizes, from the size of half an inch to ten inches in length, there are leeches color brown or black color. There are some that eat decaying plants. Others are parasites, sucking the blood and other animal tissues.
blood sucking leeches in two ways : using a leech proboscis to puncture the skin or using three jaws and millions of tiny teeth. Leeches live almost anywhere there is water origin. Leeches find their prey by detecting skin oils, blood, heat or carbon dioxide even when the prey breathes.
Leeches do not often eat , this is because the leeches suck in large amounts of blood when eating.
Doctors often use leeches in the past to draw blood. Leeches are also used to perform operations and cutting hair. When the barber finished the operation,
she would take a bloody bandage and wrap around the pole to show that he was doing surgery. That's how the origin of the red and white pole circling the barber.
Now maggots and leeches are used for different reasons . Scientists are studying the saliva of leeches. They believe the substances that stop or prevent blood clots that someday could be used in humans. The researchers also identified several medical compounds that can be developed from the saliva of leeches.
The properties of anticoagulant and clot - digesting these substances makes them potentially useful as a drug for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke . Leeches can be " milked " for their secretions without being harmed, and continues to do research the possibility of engineering synthetic leech saliva. But it still used leeches to suck blood.
Doctors now turn to leeches to help restore blood circulation to grafted tissue and reattached and toes.
For example : microsurgeons at a Boston hospital used leeches to save the ears of a 5 year old boy who had been bitten by a dog died . The leech can remove all solid blood to allow normal circulation to return to the network , thus preventing gangrene from scratch .
At this time , hundreds of thousands of leeches are sold in the U.S. to hospitals , clinics and individuals the European market , much bigger and millions of leeches are sold every year .

Hirudotherapy.

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches . This type of therapy is known from extreme antiquity and is still alive today . This fact shows effectiveness in healing various diseases . Currently Hirudotherapy method approved by many countries .

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches

Great experience using medicinal leeches in medical purpose kept up for centuries With the development of science covert action mechanism described leech salivary glands , are biologically active substances included in it was introduced to the public , the influence of leeches on the particular structure of a living organism has been investigated . Some medical forms are made on the basis of biologically active substances from the salivary glands of leeches and work on the creation of a new substance that is by doing a modern Hirudotherapy different from the old-fashioned because now we do not use the wild leeches , instead we use leeches that live in the wild , especially where they are in a natural condition that dirty , we currently use a leech only once .
The advantages are obvious and absolute safety Hirudotherapy checked on thousands of years of human experience and not cause doubts . One of the first substance that is found in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches is hirudin , a substance that thins the blood clotting process , anticoagulating as destabilaza fermentation , ingibitors of plazmine , callecrein of plasmine and others .
Factors diffusion - ferments of gialuronidaza , collagenaza , appressing factors mediators of pain - cininaza , antisclerous factors are also investigated . Thus , medicinal leeches are manufacturing biologically active substances . The result of the action of biologically active substances on living organisms are ;
- Normalization and improvement of capillary circulation ;
- Declare antiinflammatory effects ;
- Antistressful and adaptogene effect ;
- Immunostimulants and immunomodulating effects ;
- Anesthesia ;
- Anticoagulation ;
- Antibacterial Effect ;
- Improvement of the endocellular exhange and realization of this mechanism has both local and general character .
The existence of skin-visceral connection with the organs are definitely famous. biologically active substances act to organ for blood -sucking leeches drug action through Viens. This prompted an increase in blood circulation in specific organs, making trombolitic , anti-inflammatory , immunostimulant action , improve nutrition of tissues , strengthen the immune network . It is impossible for all the diseases that can be treated by using Hirudotherapy , contra - indications with Hirudotherphy is hemophilia , pregnancy , anemia , hypotonia .
Hirudotherapy can be applied to any disease known at this time . It can be used as an independent method of treatment and in a complex with other people to know . Doctors know exactly how difficult it is to struggle with chronic inflammatory diseases. The problem is in all types of clinical presentation of the disease organism protection mechanisms are universal-emission inflammatory mediators, vazoconstrictors , apireties and some other biologically active substances into the blood . Everything comes to the aspirations of living organisms to limit the nidus of inflammation by a decrease in blood circulation and capillary permeability - network , the creation of a shaft with conjunctive tissue inflammation and cellular structure and mode of temperature in the area . Given as a result of the concentration of the drug for instance an antibiotic in the nidus of inflammation is much lower than in the blood . Increasing doses of chemical drugs do not solve the problem because of excessive lead to allergies and side effects in other organs ( liver, kidney, bone marrow, glands Endocrin ). As a result, found many problems; disbacteriosis , hepatitis , nephropathy , immune deficiency conditions , but chronic inflammation problem for a given patient is not resolved . Here is to remember about Hirudotherapy . Containing biologically active substances in leech saliva glands can restore blood circulation in the nidus of inflammation , ischemia remove organs , giving the exchange capillary network and therefore can perform chemical transport of drugs into the nidus of inflammation , improve immune protection and tissue regeneration . In such conditions the use of the same chemical drugs is possible in smaller doses . These factors do not limit the ability to influence the nidus of inflammation Hirudotherapy . The problem is that in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches there are some substances that are able to withstand bacterias.One growth substances studied were the most hirudin . In experiments on animals and bactericidal action of hirudin has been proven bacteriastatic . The main reason of drug action on thrombophlebitis hirudin example is its bactericidal properties . That's why it became clear that the use of leeches in both aseptic inflammation and the inflammation caused by a bacterial agent helps the organism . Owned medicinal leech salivary gland secrets to penetrate the " axis demarcacional " inflammation is deternimed by the action of a factor of-the - enzyme gialuronidaza penetration . This enzyme is able to act unactivate gialuron acid which is a cementing substance for connective tissue .
feaeture sort Hirudotherapy essentially distinquishes of other treatment methods .
In addition to the above mentioned effects Hirudotherapy it is necessary to remember about the biological influences such as irritation of the active points in zones.It reflex has been long known that leeches prefer to sit in certain areas of the skin that correspond to points of ancient Chinese method of treatment - needleacupuncture . In Hirudotherapy results we receive in the treatment effect is not only due to the action of biologically active substances ' secret leeches , but also in a way that affects the reflex zones .
For example, in the treatment of hypertonic disease biologically active points and cervical occipital regions used and the influence of these points give , vasodilation and hipotenzive effects.The other anesthetic action of the leech is a leech exhaust taking.One blood of 5 to 10 ml of blood .. The bleeding lasts for several hours ( approximately 12-24 hours ) and patients lose about 20-30 ml blood.Thus due to the influence of the leech 5 simulteneously patients 100-250 ml of blood loss and blood this way has the advantage of taking no doubt before taking blood from a vein . Taking blood from the organs associated with pain lasted for about an hour . Therefore , creating conditions of many lasts hours and venous drainage and stable fit of certain areas , in certain areas there is usually improved microcirculation , nutrition network , mobile exchange , venous stagnation usually liquidated and organ ischemia usually eliminated.After course of treatment consists of 5-10 procedures using leeches 4-10 good clinical effect is marked.At cardiovascular pathology circulatory decompensation ( ishemic heart disease , defect intimate ) that points to the heart of authentic leech reduce elevated arterial pressure , leading to reduce stagnation in heart , for increased ventilation of the lungs and heart demolition . The effect comes in direct hipotenzive results and anticoagulating action of hirudin and not a smaller degree by reducing peripheral resistance . In the cardiovascular system disease Hirudotherapy play a special role.It easy to find an explanation for the attention to the conditions mentioned above properties.Besides note hirudin ability to affect blood clotting . Fluid and blood clotting conditions provided by the functional interation of two systems of organisms : anticlotting.The anticlotting support system and blood clotting in a liquid state , protecting it from freezing , which both provide protection from bleeding in violation of the integrity of blood vessels . For patients with ischemic heart disease , hypertension , for parents , for patients with diabetes is a major problem as angiopathy and vessel atherosclerosis - results ; atherosclerosis anyone integrety violation of vessels.which blood supply and turn on the system clotting.In terrible results show most of the heart disease and arterial thrombosis in vessels is an important vital organs. The output of thrombosis is heart infarction , brain , lungs brinding sometimes deadly results . Stimulation fibrinolitic activity and anticlotting systems of the blood in disease , the suppression of the formation trombs , and reduce blood viscosity is needed both with medical purpose and for preventive maintenance of ischemic conditions . The mechanism of action of hirudin on thrombin oppressive investigated . hirudin blocks the action of thrombin and the latter loses its properties , does not promote the transition of fibrinogen to fibrin. Besides secret saliva of medicinal leeches block an attachement anitial of platelets and actually press them on the surface collagenus aggregetion . Thus , the secret saliva of leeches and the influence of the drug on blood plasma cellular factor clotting. In much research writer is indicated that after the leech is no normalization parameter assignment separate from coagulogramme - on anitial combination of hyper coagulation system activates and vice versa anticoagulating is becoming more active . Similar effects were not accepted even when we use a known anticoagulant such as heparin and aspirin . We must add the effects lipotropal enzymes from the salivary glands of leeches which consists in the ability of drugs to influence on blood lipids . At the beginning of this century, some scientists expressed the assumption that the development of atherosclerosis can be prevented by applying medicinal leeches . In the 1984-1989 experiment proved that the introduction of long- secret introvenous salivary glands of medicinal leeches to mice that were presented in conditions very last atherosclerosis has been a reduction in lung lipids and abdominal arteries . It is known that lipoproteids low density and low density lipoproteids greatly promoted the development of atherosclerosis , but the high density lipoproteids antisclerous protective factors play a role . On hearing the disease there ishemic redistribution of cholesterol in the different classes of lipoproteids density . Quantity in lipoproteids it raises low-density and very low density lipoproteids reduced resulting in high lipoproteids . In this group had increased levels of lipid authentic general , triglicerids , cholesterol on artery walls . Many writers are engaged in this sign authentically reduction problem triglicerids and cholesterol in the blood after a few sessions Hirudotherapy . This makes it possible to draw the conclusion that the secret lipotropic ensymes leech saliva drug can be used in the atherosclerotic vessel defects regardless of the primary localization of atherosclerosis . Perhaps the effect of " rejuvenation " can look after emergence Hirudotherapy shine in the eyes , skin elasticity improvement , flush appearance , loss of face mask fatigue in patients , strong sort of patient . That's possible because in this case we are dealing with an increase mechanism Vasku.

The nature of Leech Therapy.


The nature of Leech Therapy

leech mouth.

structure leech

Therapeutic properties Hirudotherapy ;

* Common reflexogenic : hypotension
* Bleeds : immunopotentiating
* Internal decongestion : bacteriostatic
* Anticoagulants : anti - inflammatory
* Protective antithrombotic : Local anti - edema
* Thrombolytic : analgesic
* Removal of microcirculation disorders : antiatherosclerotic
* Anti - ischemic : elimination of abnormal interactions between the system.

Doctor Miracle called leech .

Applied drugs have hundreds of years of experience in the fight against human disease . Tens of thousands of different mixtures , tablets , vaccines , drugs , etc. have been created - and they are all human treatment effects . And why professional doctors again and again apply to traditional methods of treatment rather old drug tested by our ancestors ? There is no secret that ... All of these methods are based on natural root . That is why we applied the medical center fashioned method " of treatment for hundreds of diseases ".

Hirudotherapy .

Hirudotherapy ( from Latin leech Hirudo - ) is known since ancient times . Along with general bloodletting , has been regarded as a necessary drug in the treatment of different diseases .
Secrets of the medical leech salivary gland contains more than 100 bioactive substances and has anti -inflammatory action , bacteriostatic , analgesic , completing , it eliminates the microcirculation disorders , vascular permeability restore damaged tissues and organs , eliminating hypoxia ( lack of oxygen ) , reducing blood pressure , improving the activity of the immune system , detoxifies the organism , releases from threatening complications , such as infarction , stroke , improving bioenergy status of the organism .
How confidential leech injection is very simple : placed on the skin to bite the skin , then the leech saliva secret falls into the bloodstream and go to the focus of the disease through the vessel .
In medicine we use hirudoreflexotherapy put leeches on reflexogenic point as " needle Life ".

Indications for treatment with medicinal leeches :

* Cardiovascular diseases , including essential hypertension and ischemic
   diseases , diseases phlebogene of the lower extremities ;
* Chronic bronchitis , pneumonia , bronchial asthma ;
* Digestive tract diseases ( hepatitis , cholecystitis , pancreatitis , gastric ulcer ) ;
* ENT Disease ;
* Paradontosis and other dental diseases ;
* Urological diseases ;
* Male sterility ;
* Skin diseases ( neurodermatitis , psoriasis , eczema , herpes ) ;
* Gynecological disorders ( commissural process in the small pelvis ,
* Female infertility ,
* Adnexitis chronic , parametritis ,
* Endometriosis , fibromastopathy ) ;
* Systemic diseases ( rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus , scleroderma ) ;
* Osteochondrosis and radiculitis ;
* Eye diseases , including glaucoma ;
* Infantile cerebral paralysis ( ICP ) and other diseases .
* Therapy Hirudotherapy properties :

Blood shortage.

Leech therapy is always associated with a certain degree of blood loss , which is clinically irrelevant in most cases . In clinical trials by Michalsen , losses mean hemoglobin 0.7 mg / dL of blood loss , and clinically relevant not occur in any of the patients studied . However , there is a strong afterbleeding isolated observations with a decrease in hemoglobin value , especially in cases where the leech was accidentally applied directly to the superficial veins . According to the Essen-Mitte Hospital, clinically relevant decrease in hemoglobin (> 3 mg/dL) occurred after leech therapy in two patients , one of whom required blood transfusion ( after being treated with six leeches for osteoarthritis of the knee ) . Asked retrospective , one patient stated that he was , in his opinion , prolonged bleeding injuries in the past . In other cases , afterbleeding from leech bites lasted for 36 hours and must be stopped by skin sutures . extensive coagulation test is then performed but did not reveal any specific coagulation disorders . Prior to the occurrence of abnormal bleeding anamnestically seem important , and patients should be specifically questioned about the incident . Anticoagulants are drugs simultaneously important to see . If low-dose aspirin is prescribed in combination with other platelet aggregation inhibitors ( clopidogrel , Iscover , Plavix ) or high -dose fish oil ( Omacor ) , a small number of leeches ( 3-4 ) should be used initially. blood counts should always be obtained before the start of leech therapy. To reliably prevent the loss of the relevant amount of blood , the leech therapist should never use more than 12 twisters in a single treatment session.

Impaired Wound Healing , superinfection , and Allergies .

Once the leech drops off , the edge of the wound three branches generally swell during 12-48 hours accompanied by feelings of local tension , hot , and flushed . Small blood spots ( ecchymoses ) develop under the skin around the bite of a leech . larger collection of blood rarely develops . Such as superficial bruises , blood spots initially reddish purple , then turn yellowish , and finally disappeared in about two weeks . Localized inflammation , sometimes with papulous height of the bite site , is a relatively common problem that is often accompanied by itching . This inflammation usually subsides quickly when the ice and left . The cause of this disorder is unknown wound - healing . improper handling , especially early termination afterbleeding from wounds , leech head squeezed with pliers , strong deletion of leeches before finished eating , and the failure to keep the animals in freshwater , has frequently been implicated as a potential cause . However , it has also been observed to occur right after leech treatment in isolated cases . Theoretically, Aeromonas hydrophila local infection with a potential cause , but so far there is no evidence of microbiological presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in the wound fluid of affected patients . more severe local inflammation is most often caused by secondary wound contamination or irritation due to mechanical irritation , such as scratching and rubbing . Patients should be informed of the overall importance of protecting the wound from mechanical irritation . According to survey hospitals , more severe local inflammation occurs in three isolated cases : One patient developed erysipelas and two lymphangitis being developed . All cases resolved rapidly in response to treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics and / or gyrase inhibitors . Obedience localization contraindications and recommendations to minimize the risk of local inflammation . In case it is not clear where the progressive and painful skin redness develops , especially if it is associated with increased temperature , the leech therapist should know to administer antibiotics immediately . Pseudolymphomas may occur in rare cases , this is caused by efflorescences papulous reaction to arthropod bites leech . Currently , no data are used to assess the exact frequency of these side effects . To our knowledge , a total of three documented and confirmed cases have been reported .
It is difficult to distinguish the wound - healing secondary disturbance of potential allergic reactions . precise data on the frequency of allergic reactions to the bite of a leech is not available . Local itching , a common side effect of leeching , should not be construed as an allergic reaction . allergic reactions such as urticaria firmly while and locodistant swelling have been reported in a few isolated cases . However , local symptoms , reflex erythema and urticarial dermographism psychovegetatively unstable individuals have been studied more frequently . An older case reports describe the occurrence of short -term anaphylactic shock after six leeches applied to the temple area . Some experts manage systemic antihistamines leech therapy for the treatment of localized allergic reaction to ( empirical ) good success . However , response rates for both antihistamines are not evidence per se of allergens : A certain level of placebo response to antihistamines should also be taken into account . Which may be boosting existing antibiotics allergic to leech therapy is also proposed in case reports .
When interpreting a local reaction that occurs after leech therapy , it is important to remember that the protease in the saliva of leeches release various types of mediators nonimmunological . Furthermore , the reaction may be exacerbated by factors psychovegetative . All in all , there are only a few cases in which a relationship between leech therapy and the occurrence of allergic reactions has been proven with reasonable certainty . However , potential allergic reactions occur after exposure to any foreign protein . Contact dermatitis has also been observed after the use of leeches ointment .
Short-term reactive swelling and / or tenderness of the lymph nodes proximal have occasionally been reported , but most often in patients with delayed wound healing . This phenomenon has most often develops in the groin area after application of leeches for the treatment of knee joint, hip joint, or varicose veins. Quickly and smoothly loss swollen lymph nodes all of which are described in case reports.

Blood poisoning .

Sepsis due to systemic infection with Aeromonas hydrophila has been repeatedly observed after application of leeches in reconstructive surgery indications , but not in any of the other relevant fields used . This supports the conclusion that the risk of Aeromonas hydrophila sepsis increased only in patients with severe underlying disease or immunosuppression , which often occur in surgical candidates for leech therapy . Therefore we recommend concurrent antibiotic treatment for all surgical patients receiving leech therapy . In the rest of the field of use , the primary antibiotic therapy does not seem to be required in accordance with the current state of knowledge , but must be considered relevant contraindications.

Transmission of Infectious Diseases .

At this time , medicinal leeches are generally only used once . Therefore , there is no risk of indirect transfer of infectious diseases from one patient to another . Aeromonas hydrophila primary infection with clinically relevant only if the leech goes for transplant surgery . Concurrent antibiotic treatment therefore recommended for prophylaxis of infection in these cases ( see above ) . Transmission of pathogenic bacteria or other viruses to humans in the context of leech therapy has not been observed so far.

Scars.

If allowed , the former is usually rapid leech shrunk to hardly visible or invisible signs three small branches disappear completely within one to three weeks . However , if the impaired wound healing wounds due to scratching or secondary infections , scars will remain visible for a long time significantly . Papulous skin changes over the last few months have also been reported in isolated cases . In one case , a " reaction to arthropod " permanent also been reported after treatment leeches . Significant scarring may occur especially when leeches are applied to
areas with thin skin and a thin layer of subcutaneous tissue or joint area where the skin is constant movement . Wearing tight clothing after treatment , for example, around the knee , can also result in scar formation .
For aesthetic reasons , the control is recommended when using leeches in the face or in part apparent and other relevant cosmetics from the body . Here , we re- emphasize that it is necessary to thoroughly inform patients about the potential risks of treatment , including scar tissue , and to obtain written informed consent from the patient before going ahead with the treatment .

Safety and Side Effects Leech Therapy .

leech therapy rarely ever lead to serious complications . Local pain medication and short-term side effects itching usual . Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen-Mitte, especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease, is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack.

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .
Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen - Mitte , especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease , is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack .

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .

Medicinal leeches .

Approximately 600 species of leeches have been identified to date , but only about 15 are used in the treatment . Leeches classified as " medicinal leeches " , Hirudo medicinalis , in the narrow sense has been used to treat patients for centuries .
The first documented account of the use of Hirudo medicinalis for medicinal purposes dates back to the time of Hippocrates . According to Sanskrit writings , Dhavantari , the father of Indian medicine , held nectar in one hand and a leech on the other hand . Leech therapy is also used in traditional Chinese medicine . Paintings of medicinal leeches have been found in the tombs of pharaohs . The Solomon Parables also describe leech treatment use in ancient medicine . Leech therapy in the treatment of Greece can be found in the poem by Nicandros Alexipharmacia . The Roman physician Galen classified leech terapy as a method to achieve a healthy balance . Avicenna also used leeches for healing aids. In the past leeches have proven the most effective treatment in many cases. Leeches were especially useful in the treatment of battle wounds . European countries in the 18th and 19th centuries imported over 100 million leeches every year to meet the high demand .
Currently , doctors use leeches for treating abscesses , painful joints , glaucoma , myasthenia , and to heal venous diseases and thrombosis . Medical leeches are used in plastic surgery , to improve brain circulation and for the treatment of infertility .
Common indications for leech therapy are :
inflammatory reaction
Heart Disease
Rheumatic Diseases
Tendovaginitis and Tendinitis
Venous Disease and Varicose Veins
arthrosis
arthritis
muscle tension
Antidyscratic therapy ( blood purification and regeneration ) of toxicoses and mental illness
Thrombosis and embolism
Passive congestions and spastic conditions
Vertebrogenic Pain Syndromes
Transudates and exudates
A simple principle lies at the heart of all miracles - Hirudo . During feeding, leeches secrete a complex mixture of different biologically and pharmacologically active ingredients into the wound . Hirudin is the best known component of leech saliva . Hirudin is sometimes used to describe all the active substances in leech saliva . In fact , hirudin only refer to a particular active substance in leech salive . Component of leech saliva drug effects in the host's body is :
* Hirudin : Inhibits blood coagulation by binding to thrombin
* Calin : Inhibits blood clots by blocking the binding of von factors
   Willebrand for collagen . Inhibit collagen - mediated platelet aggregation
* Destabilase : Monomerizing activities . Soluble fibrin . effects of thrombolytic
* Hirustasin : Inhibits kallikrein , trypsin , chymotrypsin , cathepsin G neutropholic
* Bdellins : Anti - inflammatory . Inhibit trypsin , plasmin , acrosin
* Hyaluronidase : Increasing the viscosity of the interstitial . antibiotic
* Tryptase inhibitors : Inhibits proteolytic enzymes of host mast cells
* Eglins : Anti - inflammatory. Inhibit the activity of alpha - chymotrypsin, chymase, substilisin, elastase, cathepsin G
Inhibiting Factor Xa inhibitors : coagulation factor xa activity by forming
  equimolar complex
* Inhibitors : Complementary May possibly replace natural complement inhibitors if they lack
* Carboxypeptidase : A inhibitors Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Histaminelike : vasodilator substances . Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Acetylcholine : vasodilator
* Subsctance anesthesia : anesthesia

Effects leech bites .

Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite,
only 90  % of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians , reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals ( including, but not limited to, humans ). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant ( hirudin ) that leeches secrete , bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned .
Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat . However , bacteria , viruses , and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months , and may be transmitted back to humans . A study found both HIV and hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon . ( Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used )
Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite, only 90% of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians, reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals (including, but not limited to, humans). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant (hirudin) that leeches secrete, bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned. Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat. However, bacteria, viruses, and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months, and may be transmitted back to humans.
A study found both HIVdan hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon. (Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used).
Thank you for reading this article . Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2014/01/did-you-know-about-leeches-?.html
DatePublished: January 27, 2014 at 11:30
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Saturday, 13 February 2016

Did You Know The Benefits of Milk Etawa.

Benefits of Milk Milk Etawa Etawa believed to have tremendous benefits for a variety of health. It is based on research that Etawa milk contains nutrients and minerals are fairly complete. Among them, phosphorus, calcium, sodium and fluorine. Therefore, milk Etawa claimed to have benefits that almost equivalent to breastmilk.
Etawa.

By looking at the nutritional content is very diverse and complete, it is not surprising that the benefits of milk Etawa also quite numerous and varied. What are the benefits of milk Etawa? Some of the reviews about the health benefits of milk for Etawa.

Benefits and Uses Milk Etawa are :

It has a natural anti-inflammatory properties.

Milk is naturally homogenized Etawa. Fat globules contained in milk Etawa can solve themselves into smaller parts when compared to cow's milk. It is beneficial to facilitate digestion and absorption of food by the body.

For people who suffer from bowel problems or gastrointestinal disorders caused by inflammation, milk Etawa very good to eat. Probiotic properties found in milk Etawa can encourage the development of the digestive system better.

Contains essential fatty acids.

Etawa milk contains about 35% higher fatty acids when compared to cow's milk only has 17%. In addition, milk Etawa more pronounced efficacy when taken in a raw state. Even for those who are lactose intolerant. Milk Etawa also beneficial for lowering high cholesterol. Antimicrobial fatty acids such as caprylic and capric acid found in milk Etawa also useful for improving the digestive system.

Improve the digestive system.

As mentioned earlier, milk Etawa very good for digestive health. This milk has the ability to soothe your digestive tract and suppress hunger effectively making it very suitable for weight loss. Moreover, the absence of protein complexes in milk Etawa make less milk allergy compared with cow's milk.

Does not cause allergies.

Many people complain that turns cow's milk can make them prone to allergies and respiratory diseases. But you do not worry, milk Etawa is an alternative that is very potent and efficacious to resolve the issue. High fat content in cow's milk is the cause of the accumulation of mucus that trigger allergies. Fat globules contained in milk Etawa only one ninth of the fat present in cow's milk. Therefore, irritation of your intestines due to consumption of milk can be avoided.

Acting as a metabolic agent.

Research and studies conducted on milk Etawa concluded that milk is closely related Etawa increased ability to absorb iron and copper, especially in people who have impaired digestive system.

Rich in calcium.

Although people consume cow's milk to increase calcium intake and prevent osteoporosis, you should also try Etawa milk because milk Etawa very rich in calcium and amino acid tryptophan.

As good nutrition and natural.

Goats are known as bio-organic sodium animals because efficacious to improve morale, flexibility and vitality for those who like to consume goat milk. Sodium bio-organic elements that keep joints supple and healthy. In addition, milk Etawa also widely used as a drug to maintain and regenerate the nervous system.

Can treat tuberculosis and asthma.

Milk Etawa it can be used as a medicine to cure tuberculosis and asthma because it contains Fluorine and Betakasein. In addition, milk Etawa also beneficial for those who have problems with breathing.

Good for pregnant and lactating mothers.

Another benefit of milk Etawa named as additional nutrition for pregnant women. In addition, the impact of milk consumption in pregnant women Etawa will nourish the fetus as well. As for nursing mothers, milk Etawa good to facilitate breastfeeding.

Can nourish the skin.

Did you know that milk Etawa it can be used as face masks and scrubs. This method is useful for smoothing the skin and tightens pores so free from various skin problems such as acne.

Benefits of Milk Etawa For Body And Skin.

Like any other milks, milk Etawa also very well taken by all ages because it is very beneficial for health. Of the value of the nutrients, milk Etawa not inferior to other milks, milk even Etawa has several advantages which are very striking. Milk Etawa also recommended consumed for the growth of the baby, pregnant women, breast-feeding mothers, the elderly, and also for healing various diseases as well as for skin beauty. Etawa milk can also be processed into milk powder, cheese, and other dairy products using.

Regarding Milk Mistaken assumption Etawa.

The myth that assumes that goat's milk should not be consumed by people with hypertension (high blood pressure) is not true. The content of "Potassium (Potassium)" contained in the milk Etawa it serves to control blood pressure and may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Content of Milk Etawa.

Results of research conducted by the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) shows dairy nutrition Etawa approaching perfect composition of breast milk. Every 100 grams of goat milk contains 3-4% protein, 4-7% fat, 4.5% carbohydrates, 134 grams of calcium and 111 g of phosphorus. The chemical composition Etawa milk contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, calories, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, B1 (IU), B2 (mg), B6, B12, C, D, E, Niacin , V, Pantotenant Acid, Choline and Inositol. Children who consume goat milk has good bone density, increased hemoglobin levels, as well as the adequacy of vitamin A, B1, B2 and B3 are essential for the growth and development of brain and nerve cells. Amino acids containing sulfur element methionine, cystine and cysteine essential for building healthy brain and nervous system, as well as play a role in the formation of blood cells antidote (detoxification) of hazardous chemicals into the body.

Excess Milk Etawa.

- In terms of nutrition, composition, and the nature, Milk Etawa composition and chemical properties of natural breast milk contains close.
- Have antiseptic properties, natural and can help reduce the breeding of bacteria in the body. This is caused the presence of Fluorine are 10-100 times greater than in cow's milk.
- Is wet (Alkaline Food) that is safe for the body.
- Protein lactase its effect soft and lightweight, so it does not cause diarrhea.
- Protein content contained better than eggs.
- Fat is easily digested because it has a soft and smooth texture is smaller than the grain fat cow's milk or other milk. Homogeneous and also be experienced.
- This makes it easier to digest so that suppress the onset of allergic reactions.
- Milk Etawa can be ingested by humans 20 minutes faster than the other milk.
- Efficacy for the Health of Dairy Ingredients Etawa
- Etawa milk contains sodium (Na), fluorine (F), Calcium (C), and phosphorus (P) as the dominant chemical elements and other nutritional content.

Milk Etawa has a property :

- Helps digestion and neutralize stomach acid.
- As a healing therapy of asthma, tuberculosis and acute lung infection chronic.
- Helps to treat allergic skin and other organs.
- Increase stamina and endurance.
- Addressing the problem of impotence / frigidity and increase the vitality of adult men and women.
- Efficacious for patients with abnormal renal function or in the medical world called neprotic syndrome.
- Efficacious as a healing therapy uric acid.
- Efficacious for bone formation, is highly recommended for those who suffer from rheumatism and prevent bone loss / OSTEOPHOROSIS.
- Helping to provide nutrition and other metabolic disorders.
- Helps smooth the skin because it has no milk Etawa in the form of soap.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
http://schema.org/Personal
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/02/did-you-know-the-benefits-of-milk-etawa.html
DatePublished: 13 February 2015 at 18:58
Tags : Did You Know The Benefits of Milk Etawa, Etawa, Milk Etawa.
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Wednesday, 2 September 2015

Do You Know the People's Republic of China.

People's Republic of China (Simplified Hanzi: 中华人民共和国; Hanzi Traditional: 中華人民共和國; pinyin: Zhonghua Renmin Gònghéguó, abbreviated China; since June 28th, 1967 until March 14, 2014 is also called the People's Republic of China / PRC or China / PRC, literal : Chinese People's Republic) is a country located in East Asia which had its capital in Beijing. The country has the largest population in the world (about 1.35 billion inhabitants) and an area of ​​9.69 million square kilometers, making it the 4th largest in the world. This country was founded in 1949 after the end of the Chinese Civil War, and since that time led by a single party, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Though often seen as a communist country, most of the republic's economy has been privatized since the 1980s. However, the government still watching the political economy mainly with companies owned by the government and the banking sector. Politically, he still remains a one-party government.
As the most populous countries in the world, with a population of over 1.363 billion people (estimated in 2014), which constitute the majority of the Chinese nation. To reduce the number of inhabitants, the government vigorously promoting one-child policy. Mainland China is a term used to refer to a region under Chinese rule and excluding special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, while the name of the Republic of China refers to another entity that had once ruled China since 1912 until its defeat in the Chinese Civil War. Currently the Republic of China only controls the island of Taiwan, and its capital in Taipei, therefore commonly called Chinese Taipei, especially in sporting events. China claims the area belongs to the Republic of China (commonly known as Taiwan), but does not command it, while the Republic of China claims sovereignty over the entire Chinese mainland which is currently controlled by the PRC. (see also: Political status of Taiwan).
China has the largest economies and the most complex in the world for more than two thousand years, along with several heyday and downfall. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China became the country with the fastest growing economy in the world. As of 2013, the country became the second largest economy in the world based on total nominal GDP and PPP, as well as being an exporter and importer in the world. China is a country that has nuclear weapons and has the world's largest active army, the world's second largest military expenditure. China became a member of the United Nations in 1971, where he replaced the Republic of China as a permanent member of the UN Security Council. China is also a member of a wide range of other organizations such as the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, BCIM and G-20. China is a great power in Asia, and become a potential superpower, according to some observers.

History.

After World War II, Chinese Civil War between the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang Nationalist Party ended in 1949 with the Communist party control of mainland China and the Kuomintang withdrew to the island of Taiwan and several offshore islands in Fujian. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China and established a communist state, but does not try to dominate the island of Taiwan.
The supporters of the Maoist policy says that under Mao, China's unity and sovereignty can be ascertained for the first time in recent decades, and there is a development of the infrastructure, industry, health, and education, which they believe has helped improve the living standards of the people. They also believe that campaigns such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution were essential in accelerating the development of China and clarify their culture. Supporters may also doubt statistics or accounts given for death tolls or other damage caused by Mao's campaigns. They say that hunger is due to natural disasters; there is also a doubt the number of deaths from starvation, or say that more people die from starvation or other political reasons during the rule of Chiang Kai-shek (1928-1949).
Even so, critics of Mao's policies say that Mao's administration imposed strict controls over everyday life of the people, and believe that campaigns such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution contributed to or resulted in the loss of millions of lives, bringing economic costs are huge, and damaging legacy Chinese culture. Leap Forward, in particular, the period preceding the great famine in China which, according to Western sources and East trustworthy, result in the death of 45 million people within 4 years.
After the dramatic economic failures in the early 1960s, Mao resigned as chairman of China. National People's Congress Liu Shaoqi as Mao's successor. Mao remains a party leader but was removed from day-to-day economic tasks controlled by softer by Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping and others who initiated economic reforms.
In 1966 Mao launched the Cultural Revolution, which views its opponents as retaliation against his rivals by mobilizing the youth to support his thinking and get rid of the moderate leadership at the time, but viewed by his supporters as an experiment in direct democracy and a genuine attempt to eliminate corruption and other bad influences of the Chinese people. Chaos was raised but this was soon reduced under the leadership of Zhou Enlai in which the moderate forces regain influence. After Mao's death, Deng Xiaoping succeeded in gaining power and Mao's widow, Jiang Qing and her associates, Gang of Four, who have taken over state power, arrested and brought to justice.
Since then, the government has gradually (and have many) loosened governmental control over the daily life of its people, and began transitioning China's economy towards a market-based system.
Proponents of financial reform - usually people of the middle class and Western observers left-center and right - shows the rapid development of the economy in the consumer sector and exports, the creation of the middle class (especially in the coastal town where most of the industrial development is concentrated) are now representing 15% of the population, higher living standards (shown by the rapid increase in per capita GDP, consumer spending, life expectancy, literacy rate, and the amount of rice production) and the rights and personal freedoms wider for ordinary people.
Critics of the economic reforms show evidence that the reform process has created a wealth gap, environmental pollution, corruption rampant, unemployment increased as a result of layoffs in inefficient state companies, and has introduced unwelcome cultural influences. Consequently they believe that the Chinese culture has been corrupted, her poor and detached, and social stability is threatened.
Although there are concessions to capitalism, the Chinese Communist Party remains in power and has maintained policies that curb to clusters that are considered dangerous, such as Falun Gong and separatist movements in Tibet. Supporters of this policy states that this policy of maintaining stability in a society divided by class differences and rivalries, which does not have a history of public participation, and limited law. Critics say that these policies violate human rights known to the international community, and they also claim that resulted in the creation of a police state, which give rise to fear.
China adopted the constitution on December 4, 1982 were used up to now.

Politics.

According to the official definition, China is a communist country because he was a communist country in the 20th century ago. Officially he was still known as a communist country, although some political scientists define it is now no longer a communist state. There is no precise definition that can be given to the type of governance practiced this country, because the structure is not known for sure. One reason for these problems exist is because of its history, the State China is a country ruled by emperors during the 2,000 years with a strong central government with the influence of Confucianism. After the era of the monarchy ended in 1911, China was governed by the autocratic Kuomintang Nationalist Party and some warlords. Then after 1949 continued rule by the Communist Party of China.
PRC government is often described as authoritarian, communist and socialist. He is also seen as the communist empire. Communist members who winged over to the left dubbed capitalist state. Indeed, the Chinese state more and more towards the free economic system. In an official document issued recently, the government outlined a democratic state administration, although the real situation there is not so.
PRC Government escorted by the Communist Party of China (CPC) and state leaders elected by the Party through Congress. Although there is a little-a lot of movement in the direction of liberalization, as elections are now held at the village level and most representative body, the party continues to have watched, especially on the selection of administrative positions. Although countries using authoritarian methods to deal with challenges to his rule, at the same time the government attempts to reduce dissent by improving the economy, allowing expression of personal feelings, and serve the opponents that are not considered harmful to the government more fairly.
Filtering against the propaganda-political propaganda also routine, and China firmly eliminate protest or any organization that considers a threat to his government, as happened in Tiananmen demonstrations in 1989. However, the People's Republic of media is increasingly active in publicizing social problems and symptoms 'bribery' in the lower levels of government. RRT also so successfully blocking the movement of information, and there was a time they were forced to change their police as an act of revenge against the popular protests. Although opposition to the CCP structure is not justified at all, a demonstration of the people more and more often and left.
The popularity of the party among the masses is difficult to quantify, because there is no election at the national level, and when Chinese people were asked by itself anyway, there are some supportive and some are defiant, but most declined to comment on political issues. In general, many of those who would rather perpetuate the role of government stability, allowing the economy to grow without problems. Among the main political issue in China is the social gap between rich and poor and the symptoms of bribes accepted as government bureaucracy.
There are also other political parties in China, although they are only a sub-party or parties that the meeting with the CCP. PKT hold a dialogue with them through a specialized communication agency, called the People's Transportation Council reserves deemed PRC. This method is preferred over election administration. However, this party is the total does not suggest anything to the police and the foundations of empire. Special liaison body functions for CPP shallow eyes, although there are employees of these agencies at all levels of government.

Foreign relations.

People's Republic of China maintains diplomatic ties with almost all countries in the world, but to set the conditions that countries that want to establish diplomatic cooperation with China must approve claims against Taiwan and severing official ties with the government of the Republic of China. China has also actively opposed the trips abroad carried Taiwan independence supporters like Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian and Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama.

In 1971, China replaced the Republic of China as the only representative for "China" in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. China has also become a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, and is still acting as an observer member. Many of today's foreign policy is based on the concept of China's peaceful rise.
Sino-American relations have been damaged and repaired several times in recent decades. In May 1999, a war plane B-2 Stealth Bomber dropped three bombs per each weighing 900 kg at the Chinese embassy in downtown Belgrade during the Kosovo upheaval. The bomb killed three Chinese citizens who work in the embassy concerned. United States reluctant to take responsibility for what happened that its nature as a 'disaster', saying that it was a mistake to use the old maps that give false declaration concerning the status of the Yugoslav government buildings as a basic weapon. PRC Government is not satisfied with this explanation and charged that it was intentionally done. In April 2001 also, the American-owned aircraft voyeur named EP-3E Aries II was on the island of Hainan in China met with a Chinese jet attention to his movements. China-related aircraft crashes and his guide were killed when the ship was forced to hold a US peeper emergency landing on Hainan Island. American and Chinese stories about these events differ slightly abortion. The American version states that the plane is above the international seas while he was at RRT indicted over its exclusive economic zone. Both sides blame the other party is responsible for this incident. 24 American sailors were detained for 12 days before being released and these events have an impact on diplomatic relations between the two countries. Americans are also not the slightest apology for the mistake he did when the Chinese government took the decision on the basis of compassion to release the children of his ship. One more case related to the Cox report, which accuses the PRC has been peeping compromise nuclear secrets United States for decades.
Sino-Japanese relations are often shackled to the problem of Japan's reluctance to acknowledge the sins of war and apologized for atrocities on the people of China and other Asian countries during World War II, especially in the Nanjing Massacre. Most of the body instead of the West and Western governments critical of China because it is said to deny the human rights and foreign relations with Western governments in the affected by the incidence of Tian'anmen in 1989. Human rights are often leveraged by these governments.
In addition, China is involved in several other areas of contention:
Taiwan, controlled by the Republic of China, People's Republic of China claimed.
Aksai Chin, controlled by China, claimed by India
Paracel Islands, controlled by China, claimed by Vietnam and the Republic of China
Spratly islands, disputed between China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam
Islands Diaoyu / Senkaku Islands, controlled by Japan, claimed by China and the Republic of China
Arunachal Pradesh / South Tibet, controlled by India, claimed by China
In 2004, the Russian state agreed to hand over Yinlong Islands and part of Heixiazi Islands to China, and once completed the border dispute between the two countries. The second island is located between the junction of rivers Amur and Ussuri rivers, and before it was arranged by Russia and claimed by China. This case should tighten and strengthen the friendship between the two countries, but there is a little taste is not satisfied from both sides. Russians qualifies it as a weakness of his government granting maintain land confiscated during World War II. Cossack farmers in Khabarovsk also do not like to lose their cultivated land while the news of this agreement in mainland China is filtered by the Chinese government. Most communities of China in the Republic of China and the Chinese people can overcome this filter criticize this agreement and menyifatinya recognition Russian government over Outer Mongolia submitted by the Qing Dynasty when losing the war under Agreements Same score including the Treaty Aigun in 1858 and the Convention of Peking In 1860 the previous period as a substitute for the exclusive use of Russian crude oil. This agreement was approved by the National People's Congress of China and the Russian State Duma but not implemented until now. became popular for a number of extreme nationalists to demand Mongolia, Tuva, Outer Manchuria, Rukyu Islands, Bhutan, Hukawng Valley in the northern Myanmar and the northeastern region of Lake Balkhash in Central Asia.

Military.

China has the army of the world's largest so-called Liberation Army of the People (PLA), although not budget the largest military (held by the United States), although there is a common belief both within the PLA and outside observers that the number is not the size of the military force that is good. That fact makes make the most of the human rights organization anger the West and sanctions by the words of Chinese who want the security, though approved within and outside the Republic that the ability of soldiers RRT carry out an operation the army outside the territory of the colony is limited and the number of members is not so useful for determining troop strength.
Estimating the Chinese military budget will produce a variety of different numbers based on what is considered the military, how to interpret the limited information available, and how does one deal with factors exchange rate. Estimates that there are give a value of US $ 9 billion as the lowest and US $ 60 billion as the highest (in terms of purchasing power parity) in 2003; the amount of US $ 60 billion in the making of China as the country's second largest after the United States who have funds budget of US $ 400 billion (almost 7 times as much). The republican military spending in 2005 was US $ 30 billion, but this does not include the money used for the purchase of weapons outside, study and construction of military, or paramilitary (Police RRT), and critics dubbed him as an experiment that deliberately done to deceive the world. Recently, a RAND study on the pages of this site estimates that military shopping actual republic is 1.4 to 1.7 times greater than official spending. However, the American army is also trying to cheat by deliberately issuing shopping spending in Afghanistan and Iraq rather than spending the Office of Defense official.
China, despite having nuclear weapons and delivery systems are developed, widely viewed only have a limited ability to deploy its military forces out of China and is not regarded as a superpower though often regarded as a major regional power. This is because most of the equipment of weapons used by the People's Republic of China is ancient and standards need to be modernized in terms of the United States. But he is still seen as the power level of a regional superpower. Air force warplanes still require aircraft carrier and most of the war was outdated.
Budgeting address that shopping, amounting to US $ 56 billion is the third largest after the United States (more than US $ 400 billion for fiscal year 2005-2006) and Russia. See also: The military budget of China.

Subdivisions.

People's Republic of China has administrative control over 22 provinces (省); Chinese government considers Taiwan (台湾) as a province to 23. (See Political status of Taiwan for further details.) The government also claims the South China Sea islands which are still contested. Aside from these provinces, there are also 5 autonomous regions (自治区) which contains many ethnic minorities; 4 municipalities (直辖市) for the largest cities of China and the two special administrative regions (SAR) (特别 行政区) ruled China.

Some list of administrative divisions under Chinese control are :

Provincial :

Anhui (安徽)
Fujian (福建)
Gansu (甘肃)
Guangdong (广东)
Guizhou (贵州)
Hainan (海南)
Hebei (河北)
Heilongjiang (黑龙江)
Henan (河南)
Hubei (湖北)
Hunan (湖南)
Jiangsu (江苏)
Jiangxi (江西)
Jilin (吉林)
Liaoning (辽宁)
Qinghai (青海)
Shaanxi (陕西)
Shandong (山东)
Shanxi (山西)
Sichuan (四川)
Yunnan (云南)
Zhejiang (浙江)
Taiwan (台湾) (disputed)

Municipalities :

Beijing (北京)
Chongqing (重庆)
Shanghai (上海)
Tianjin (天津)

Regional autonomy :

Guangxi (广西)
Inner Mongolia (内蒙古)
Ningxia (宁夏)
Xinjiang (新疆)
Tibet (西藏)
Special administrative region [edit | edit source]
Template: Coatofarmscountry Hong Kong (香港)
Template: Coatofarmscountry Macau (澳门)

Geography.

PRC controls much of eastern Asia (in peach / light beige) while the Republic of China consists of several yellow-shaded islands including Taiwan.
China is the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada, and the United States, and its territory covers a vast land in the former Yellow River Valley Civilization. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, are found extensive and densely populated alluvial plains; coast of South China Sea is more mountainous and southern China is dominated by hill country and lower mountain ranges. In the middle east discovered delta two major rivers of China, Huang He (Yellow River) and Chang Jiang (Long River). Other major rivers are Xi Jiang, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur.
To the west, major mountain ranges, notably the Himalayas with China's highest point Mount Everest, and features a high plateau between the mainland drier landscapes of desert such as Takla-Makan and the Gobi Desert. For a long drought and low agricultural perhaps create dust storms have become usual in the spring in China. According to the Environmental Protection Agency of China, the Gobi Desert has been developed and is a major source of dust storms affecting China and other parts of Northeast Asia such as Korea and Japan. Sand from the northern region has been reported to the US west coast. Maintenance of river water (such as the disposal of feces, pollution by refineries and extraction of water for irrigation and drinks) and the depreciation of hillside land has resulted in adverse impacts on other countries.

Economy.

As of 2013, China is the country with the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP with the amount of US $ 9,469 billion according to the International Monetary Fund. If calculated according to purchasing power parity (PPP), the Chinese economy also came in second place, with a value of US $ 16.149 trillion. In 2013, GDP PPP per capita is US $ 11,868, while the GDP per capita of US $ 6,959. In this case, putting China on the order of 90 of the 183 countries in the ranking of GDP per capita.
People's Republic of China characterizes the economy as socialism with Chinese characteristics. Since late 1978, the Chinese leadership has been reforming the economy from the Soviet planned economy to a market-oriented economy but still within a rigid political framework of Communist Party. For the officials to increase the power of local officials and put managers in the industry, allowing small-scale enterprises in services and light production, and opened the economy to foreign trade and investment. In the direction of the government accountability system to replace the family in agriculture in replacement of the old system that is based on the merger, adding the power of local officials and administrators in the refinery industry, and enables a wide range of employers in service and light refinery, and opening the economy to trade and foreign ports. Price controls have also been loosened. These changes resulted in mainland China from the economic command to a mixed economy.
Chinese government does not like emphasize equality when it begins to build its economy, instead, the government emphasized the increase in personal income and consumption and introducing new management systems to increase productivity. The government has also focused on foreign trade as a major vehicle for economic growth, for they set up over 2000 Special Economic Zones (Special Economic Zones, SEZ) where investment laws are relaxed to attract foreign capital. The result is a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In 1999 the total population of 1.25 billion people and a GDP of just $ 3,800 per capita, China became the sixth largest economy in the world in terms of exchange rates and the third largest in the world after the European Union and the United States in power buy. The annual income of the average Chinese worker is $ 1,300. China's economic development is believed to be one of the fastest in the world, around 7-8% per year according to Chinese government statistics. This makes the Chinese as the main focus of the world today with almost all countries, including the Western countries that criticize China, eager to establish trade relations with him. China since January 1, 2002 has been a member of the World Trade Organization.

Mainland China is famous as the place of production at low cost to run a refinery activity, and the absence of trade unions is very attractive for the management-board foreign companies, mainly because of cheap labor. Chinese factory workers are usually paid 50 cents - to $ 1 per hour (average $ 0.86), compared with $ 2 to $ 2.5 in Mexico and $ 8.50 to $ 20 in the US. Chinese workers are often forced to work hard in the employer harmless and easily suppressed because no laws and unions that can protect their rights.
At the end of 2001, the average electricity tariff in Guangdong Province is 0.72 yuan (9 US cents) per kilowatt hour, higher than the average level in mainland China 0.368 yuan (4 US cents). China officially abolished "direct budgetary outlays" for export on January 1, 1991. However, it is believed many Chinese export manufacturers receive a lot of other subsidies. Other forms of export subsidies including energy, materials or labor supply. Export of some agricultural products, such as corn and cotton, are still enjoying direct export subsidies. However, China has reduced the amount of corn export subsidies in 1999 and 2000.
Lower raw material costs which is another aspect of the Chinese economy. This is due to the competition in the vicinity which cause excessive results that helped bring down the cost of purchasing raw materials. There is also a price control and guarantee the sources of living of the old economy based on the Soviet system. Currently continues to privatize state owned enterprises and in shifting to a more profitable sector, the deflationary effect of this will continue to add upward pressure on prices in the economy.
Tax incentives "preferential" is another example of export subsidies. China tried to harmonize the system of taxes and duties it imposes on domestic and foreign companies. As a result, the tax "preferential" and duty policies that benefit exporters in special economic zones and coastal cities have been targeted for revision.
Chinese exports to the United States were $ 125 billion in 2002; American exports to China were $ 19 billion. This difference is largely attributable to the fact that Americans consume more than they produce and low-paid Chinese people can not afford to buy expensive American products. Americans alone buy more than he made and even the Chinese people want to buy American-made goodies, they can not do so because the price of American goods is too high. Another factor is the unfavorable currency exchange between the Chinese yuan and the US dollar are "locked" because China bind them to the levels of 8 renminbi fixed at 1 dollar. On July 21, 2005, the People's Bank of China announced to allow the renminbi is determined by the market, and allow a rise of 0.3% a day. , Chinese exports to the United States increased by 20% per year, faster than US exports to China. With the elimination of textile quotas, the Chinese certainly will control most of the world market clothes.
Despite its large population, it still only gives an average GNP per person is only about $ 5,000, about 1/7 the United States. Reports the official economic growth for 2003 is 9.1%. It is estimated by the CIA in 2002 that agriculture accounted for 14.5% of the GNP of China, industry and construction 51.7% and services for 33.8%. Average rural incomes about a third in urban areas, a gap which has widened in recent decades.
Because of the vast size and culture of a very long history, China has a tradition as a state economic authorities. In said Zeng Ming, professor of the board in Shanghai, in some statistics, at the end of the 16th century though, China has a third of GDP. United States valiant today has only 20%. So, if you make a comparison of this history, three or four hundred years earlier, the Chinese would have been the world's biggest power. Experiments realize return this proud state that is certainly is a goal of Chinese people. It is not surprising phenomenon not flooded Chinese people of the world want to learn Chinese language and fury America and the West against China are common in the political scenario of the world today.
However, distributive wealth chasm between the coast and the coastal area of ​​the deepening of China is still very large. To counter the potentially invite danger situation, the government implement the West China development strategy in 2000, the Reconstruction of East China Sea in 2003, and the Rise of Central China Region in 2004, all aimed at helping rural areas of China and build together.

Demographics.

Officially China views itself as one nation (the Chinese) are multi-ethnic with 56 recognized ethnicities. Han ethnic majority makes up about 93% of the population; however, the majority in only about half the area of ​​China. Han nation itself heterogeneous population, and can be regarded as a collection of various ethnic cultural practice and talk the same language. Most Han Chinese speak varieties of Chinese vernacular language, which could be seen as a first language or a language family. The largest subdivision of spoken Chinese is Mandarin Chinese, with more speakers than any other language in the world. The standard version of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, known as Putonghua, is taught in schools and used as an official language throughout the country.
Communist revolution in this country since 1949 left a big impression that almost 59% of the population (approximately 767 million people) become atheists or do not believe in God. However, approximately 33% of them believe in the tradition of trust or confidence combined Buddhism and Taoism. The religious adherents in this country is the Mahayana Buddhist totaling 100 million people. In addition, Theravada Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism are also practiced by ethnic minorities in the country's northwestern border. In addition it is estimated there are 18 million Muslims (mostly Sunni) and 14 million Christians (4 million Catholics and 10 million Protestants) in this country.
The country has long suffered the problem of population growth. In an effort to limit population growth, China has adopted a policy which limits urban families (non-Han ethnic minorities are excluded) into one child and rural families can have two children, when the first lady. Because men are considered more economically valuable in rural areas, there was a high incidence regarding sex selective abortion and rejection of children in rural areas make sure that the second child is male. This is just the basis for the majority of the nation's population of Han. There are many homes orphans for these abandoned children, but only 2% are used as a foster child by others. The rest is also great in the orphanage. China has made international institutions adopted children retrieval program, in which citizens of other countries have come to take them, but the program showed satisfactory results.
2000 passed with 117 male sex ratio: women's high 100 versus the usual ratio (106: 100), but compared to most places such as the Caucasus and South Korea. Although this ratio is said to be due to sexism, she has recently been associated with hepatitis disease as well. PRC Government was trying to reduce this problem by emphasizing the dignity of women and has stepped along to prevent medical provider of showing the parents the sex of the baby is expected. The comparison is not balanced embodies 30-40 million men who can not get a life partner. Many of these men who seek their dream girl in another country or in the centers of prostitution. In some cases, girls are kidnapped and sold as wives in distant villages.

General health.

China can not be separated from some of the common health problems that are on the rise, as other countries. Health problems associated with air and water pollution, HIV-AIDS epidemic is being spread and millions of smokers. HIV outbreaks, plus the usual routes of infection, widespread in the past because the practice was not clean which is used in blood collection in rural areas. Tobacco problem is complicated by the fact that most government monopolized the sale of cigarettes. The authorities, who rely on the income from cigarette sales, seems hesitant in response to the tobacco compared with other public health problems.
Hepatitis B is endemic in China's mainland, with the majority of the population carry the disease; 10% of them being seriously affected. This often causes liver failure or liver cancer, something that is a common cause of death in China. Hepatitis B is also known as the source of the lack of women versus men who are born, and this also explains why the number of men far exceeds the number of women in China.
In November 2002, a virus such as SARS pneumonia is a disease attacking the Guangdong province. However, the initial ratings of the disease broke out, China has been censoring and filtering the news about it to the outside world, sekaigus causes the disease spread to Hong Kong, Vietnam and other countries through international travelers. In China, 5,327 reported cases and 348 deaths passed, make this country the most severely attacked. At the end of 2004 and 2005 the number of cases decreased, although so on May 19, 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the RRT free from SARS.
One more problem facing China is avian influenza and Streptococcus suis. Flu disease has been known to originate from the local birds and some residents, and scientists estimate that this virus will cause a pandemic will have a detrimental beautiful coastline if the way the outbreak of avian-human to human.Streptococcus suis is also still limited in Sichuan province.
In 2008, nearly 100,000 people were killed by a milk scandal.

Technology and science.

On October 15, 2003, using a Long March 2F rocket and manned spacecraft Shenzhou V, China became the 3rd country to put a human being into space through its own endeavors.
After RRT-Soviet dispute, China began to build the country's nuclear deterrence program and its space transportation system itself. Results of this policy was the launch of a satellite Dong Fang Hong 1 in 1970, China's first satellite. This makes it as the fifth country to launch a satellite spaceship itself.
The country is planning a manned space program in the early '70s, with "Project 714" and the manned spacecraft Shuguang expected. Due to a series of political and economic setbacks, the manned flight program was never implemented well until 2003. However, the 1992 Project 921 is justified and on November 19, 1999, childless rocket ship Shenzhou 1 was launched, the first test of the country's rocket. After three attempts, Shenzhou 5 was launched on October 15, 2003 with the birth of the Old Wire rocket ship Yang Liwei used, making China the third country to launch a man into space after the United States and Russia. The second mission, Shenzhou 6 was launched on October 12, 2005.
Long March 2F rocket and the Shenzhou V manned spacecraft carrying Yang Liwei at the Shenzhou 5 spacecraft to orbit the Earth, where it remained for 21 hours, making a total of 14 revolutions.
Some experts consider the manned spacecraft Shenzhou is based on Russia's Soyuz spacecraft. However, Chinese experts showed that he was not in such a way and at the beginning of Project Apollo rankings similar design are reserved NASA.

Culture.

Chinese traditional norms derived from the orthodox version of Confucianism, which is taught in schools and even a part of the imperial civil service examinations in ancient times. But things are not always so because during the Qing dynasty, for example, the Chinese empire made up of a lot of thought as legalism, which in many ways is similar to Confucius, and the rights to criticize the royal unjust and moral feeling invididu hindered by thinkers orthodox. Now, the neo-Confucian thought THAT idea of ​​democracy and human rights in line with the traditional values ​​Konfuciusme 'Asia'.
The leaders who initiate steps to transform Chinese society after the founding of the PRC in 1949 and grew up in the old society has been taught to live in accordance with the norms of the environment. Although they are able to adapt to the revolutionary era, they do not want to change the culture of China on a large scale. As a direct government, the leaders of China to replace the traditional aspects such as rural land tenure and education, while preserving other aspects, such as family structure. Most outside observers found the time after 1949 is not something different in China compared with before it, even a forwarding way of life adhering to the old values ​​of Chinese society. The new government accepted without protest anything because the new government is considered "a mandate from heaven" to rule, took over the helm of leadership of the old authorities. As in ancient times, leaders such as Mao Zedong was flattered. Substitution in the Chinese society is inconsistent as charged.
Throughout the reign of PRC, many aspects of Chinese traditional culture such as painting, proverbs, language, and so that others have tried to be removed by the government as happened in the Cultural Revolution for indicted conservative, feudal and dangerous. Since then, China has realized his mistake and tried to restore the original, such as the reform of Beijing Opera to voice communist propaganda. With the passage of time, many aspects of Chinese tradition has accepted the kingdom and its people as a legacy and part of Chinese identity. The basics of the government official now made based on progress and connective Chinese civilization as most of the nation's identity. Nationalism is also applied to the youth to give legitimacy to the rule of the Chinese Communist Party.

Sports.

2008 Beijing Olympic Games held in Beijing August 8-24 Olympics 2008 which became the grandest and largest to date, was opened on the 8th of the 8th month in 8:08:08 night (number 8 is associated with prosperity in Chinese culture). The official logo of the Games, entitled "Dancing Beijing", was formed based on calligraphy character "jing", referring to the host city of Beijing. Mascots of Beijing 2008 are the five Fuwa are (Hanzi: 福 娃; Pinyin: Fuwa; literally means "good luck dolls"), each describing one color at the Olympic rings. 2008 Olympic motto is "One World, One Dream". Beijing Olympics consists of 302 matches from 28 sports. During 16 days at NBC in the United States, has become the most desirable television programs, with a total of 211 million viewers by Nielson Media Research survey, 2 million more than the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, the previous record holder. At the 29th Olympic Games, host China won the public with the acquisition of 51 gold, 21 silver, and 28 bronze. 
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/09/do-you-know-the-people's-republic-of-china.html
DatePublished: September 2, 2015 at 20:54
Tag : Do You Know the People's Republic of China.
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