Saturday, 16 January 2021

Welcome.

Welcome to Kediri.

By introducing the name Bambang Sunarno authors also introduce Kediri city as well as the historic birthplace and original culinary style Kediri, East Java, Indonesia.
This blog was established by Bambang Sunarno with the purpose of information, communication and knowledge.
In the town of Kediri, there are several historic sites and some of the history of Kediri.

Attractions including  :


Selomangleng cave.

Selomangleng cave.

Maskumambang lake.

Maskumambang lake.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.


Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes cave has been known to tourists, and is known by the name Puh Sarang Church Kediri. The tourists always visit every holiday or there is an opportunity to visit with family Kediri, while Maria Lourdes grotto is a site that explains in detail the crucifixion of Jesus and also used for the followers of the Christian ritual.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Waterfall Dolo very attractive to newcomers from abroad or locally to enjoy the beauty of the high fountain and splashing in the gentle breeze and feel fresh.

If you want to Kelud. 

the road to the mountain kelud hot water.

Please contact the Travel Agents are available in the town of Kediri and you will get a place to take you.


culinary seller on the street Dhoho kediri.

When you visit in the evening there is a culinary providers Doho line the streets until the evening at 24.00, and for the guests do not have to worry, because every time you come there is always the hotels were good and satisfying.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: 27 September 2019 at 17:02
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Sunday, 27 January 2019

Hirudotherapy treatment using leeches.


 Leeches

Leeches are ' worms ' with suckers on each end. Leeches can be divided in a variety of sizes, from the size of half an inch to ten inches in length, there are leeches color brown or black color. There are some that eat decaying plants. Others are parasites, sucking the blood and other animal tissues.
blood sucking leeches in two ways : using a leech proboscis to puncture the skin or using three jaws and millions of tiny teeth. Leeches live almost anywhere there is water origin. Leeches find their prey by detecting skin oils, blood, heat or carbon dioxide even when the prey breathes.
Leeches do not often eat , this is because the leeches suck in large amounts of blood when eating.
Doctors often use leeches in the past to draw blood. Leeches are also used to perform operations and cutting hair. When the barber finished the operation,
she would take a bloody bandage and wrap around the pole to show that he was doing surgery. That's how the origin of the red and white pole circling the barber.
Now maggots and leeches are used for different reasons . Scientists are studying the saliva of leeches. They believe the substances that stop or prevent blood clots that someday could be used in humans. The researchers also identified several medical compounds that can be developed from the saliva of leeches.
The properties of anticoagulant and clot - digesting these substances makes them potentially useful as a drug for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke . Leeches can be " milked " for their secretions without being harmed, and continues to do research the possibility of engineering synthetic leech saliva. But it still used leeches to suck blood.
Doctors now turn to leeches to help restore blood circulation to grafted tissue and reattached and toes.
For example : microsurgeons at a Boston hospital used leeches to save the ears of a 5 year old boy who had been bitten by a dog died . The leech can remove all solid blood to allow normal circulation to return to the network , thus preventing gangrene from scratch .
At this time , hundreds of thousands of leeches are sold in the U.S. to hospitals , clinics and individuals the European market , much bigger and millions of leeches are sold every year .

Hirudotherapy.

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches . This type of therapy is known from extreme antiquity and is still alive today . This fact shows effectiveness in healing various diseases . Currently Hirudotherapy method approved by many countries .

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches

Great experience using medicinal leeches in medical purpose kept up for centuries With the development of science covert action mechanism described leech salivary glands , are biologically active substances included in it was introduced to the public , the influence of leeches on the particular structure of a living organism has been investigated . Some medical forms are made on the basis of biologically active substances from the salivary glands of leeches and work on the creation of a new substance that is by doing a modern Hirudotherapy different from the old-fashioned because now we do not use the wild leeches , instead we use leeches that live in the wild , especially where they are in a natural condition that dirty , we currently use a leech only once .
The advantages are obvious and absolute safety Hirudotherapy checked on thousands of years of human experience and not cause doubts . One of the first substance that is found in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches is hirudin , a substance that thins the blood clotting process , anticoagulating as destabilaza fermentation , ingibitors of plazmine , callecrein of plasmine and others .
Factors diffusion - ferments of gialuronidaza , collagenaza , appressing factors mediators of pain - cininaza , antisclerous factors are also investigated . Thus , medicinal leeches are manufacturing biologically active substances . The result of the action of biologically active substances on living organisms are ;
- Normalization and improvement of capillary circulation ;
- Declare antiinflammatory effects ;
- Antistressful and adaptogene effect ;
- Immunostimulants and immunomodulating effects ;
- Anesthesia ;
- Anticoagulation ;
- Antibacterial Effect ;
- Improvement of the endocellular exhange and realization of this mechanism has both local and general character .
The existence of skin-visceral connection with the organs are definitely famous. biologically active substances act to organ for blood -sucking leeches drug action through Viens. This prompted an increase in blood circulation in specific organs, making trombolitic , anti-inflammatory , immunostimulant action , improve nutrition of tissues , strengthen the immune network . It is impossible for all the diseases that can be treated by using Hirudotherapy , contra - indications with Hirudotherphy is hemophilia , pregnancy , anemia , hypotonia .
Hirudotherapy can be applied to any disease known at this time . It can be used as an independent method of treatment and in a complex with other people to know . Doctors know exactly how difficult it is to struggle with chronic inflammatory diseases. The problem is in all types of clinical presentation of the disease organism protection mechanisms are universal-emission inflammatory mediators, vazoconstrictors , apireties and some other biologically active substances into the blood . Everything comes to the aspirations of living organisms to limit the nidus of inflammation by a decrease in blood circulation and capillary permeability - network , the creation of a shaft with conjunctive tissue inflammation and cellular structure and mode of temperature in the area . Given as a result of the concentration of the drug for instance an antibiotic in the nidus of inflammation is much lower than in the blood . Increasing doses of chemical drugs do not solve the problem because of excessive lead to allergies and side effects in other organs ( liver, kidney, bone marrow, glands Endocrin ). As a result, found many problems; disbacteriosis , hepatitis , nephropathy , immune deficiency conditions , but chronic inflammation problem for a given patient is not resolved . Here is to remember about Hirudotherapy . Containing biologically active substances in leech saliva glands can restore blood circulation in the nidus of inflammation , ischemia remove organs , giving the exchange capillary network and therefore can perform chemical transport of drugs into the nidus of inflammation , improve immune protection and tissue regeneration . In such conditions the use of the same chemical drugs is possible in smaller doses . These factors do not limit the ability to influence the nidus of inflammation Hirudotherapy . The problem is that in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches there are some substances that are able to withstand bacterias.One growth substances studied were the most hirudin . In experiments on animals and bactericidal action of hirudin has been proven bacteriastatic . The main reason of drug action on thrombophlebitis hirudin example is its bactericidal properties . That's why it became clear that the use of leeches in both aseptic inflammation and the inflammation caused by a bacterial agent helps the organism . Owned medicinal leech salivary gland secrets to penetrate the " axis demarcacional " inflammation is deternimed by the action of a factor of-the - enzyme gialuronidaza penetration . This enzyme is able to act unactivate gialuron acid which is a cementing substance for connective tissue .
feaeture sort Hirudotherapy essentially distinquishes of other treatment methods .
In addition to the above mentioned effects Hirudotherapy it is necessary to remember about the biological influences such as irritation of the active points in zones.It reflex has been long known that leeches prefer to sit in certain areas of the skin that correspond to points of ancient Chinese method of treatment - needleacupuncture . In Hirudotherapy results we receive in the treatment effect is not only due to the action of biologically active substances ' secret leeches , but also in a way that affects the reflex zones .
For example, in the treatment of hypertonic disease biologically active points and cervical occipital regions used and the influence of these points give , vasodilation and hipotenzive effects.The other anesthetic action of the leech is a leech exhaust taking.One blood of 5 to 10 ml of blood .. The bleeding lasts for several hours ( approximately 12-24 hours ) and patients lose about 20-30 ml blood.Thus due to the influence of the leech 5 simulteneously patients 100-250 ml of blood loss and blood this way has the advantage of taking no doubt before taking blood from a vein . Taking blood from the organs associated with pain lasted for about an hour . Therefore , creating conditions of many lasts hours and venous drainage and stable fit of certain areas , in certain areas there is usually improved microcirculation , nutrition network , mobile exchange , venous stagnation usually liquidated and organ ischemia usually eliminated.After course of treatment consists of 5-10 procedures using leeches 4-10 good clinical effect is marked.At cardiovascular pathology circulatory decompensation ( ishemic heart disease , defect intimate ) that points to the heart of authentic leech reduce elevated arterial pressure , leading to reduce stagnation in heart , for increased ventilation of the lungs and heart demolition . The effect comes in direct hipotenzive results and anticoagulating action of hirudin and not a smaller degree by reducing peripheral resistance . In the cardiovascular system disease Hirudotherapy play a special role.It easy to find an explanation for the attention to the conditions mentioned above properties.Besides note hirudin ability to affect blood clotting . Fluid and blood clotting conditions provided by the functional interation of two systems of organisms : anticlotting.The anticlotting support system and blood clotting in a liquid state , protecting it from freezing , which both provide protection from bleeding in violation of the integrity of blood vessels . For patients with ischemic heart disease , hypertension , for parents , for patients with diabetes is a major problem as angiopathy and vessel atherosclerosis - results ; atherosclerosis anyone integrety violation of vessels.which blood supply and turn on the system clotting.In terrible results show most of the heart disease and arterial thrombosis in vessels is an important vital organs. The output of thrombosis is heart infarction , brain , lungs brinding sometimes deadly results . Stimulation fibrinolitic activity and anticlotting systems of the blood in disease , the suppression of the formation trombs , and reduce blood viscosity is needed both with medical purpose and for preventive maintenance of ischemic conditions . The mechanism of action of hirudin on thrombin oppressive investigated . hirudin blocks the action of thrombin and the latter loses its properties , does not promote the transition of fibrinogen to fibrin. Besides secret saliva of medicinal leeches block an attachement anitial of platelets and actually press them on the surface collagenus aggregetion . Thus , the secret saliva of leeches and the influence of the drug on blood plasma cellular factor clotting. In much research writer is indicated that after the leech is no normalization parameter assignment separate from coagulogramme - on anitial combination of hyper coagulation system activates and vice versa anticoagulating is becoming more active . Similar effects were not accepted even when we use a known anticoagulant such as heparin and aspirin . We must add the effects lipotropal enzymes from the salivary glands of leeches which consists in the ability of drugs to influence on blood lipids . At the beginning of this century, some scientists expressed the assumption that the development of atherosclerosis can be prevented by applying medicinal leeches . In the 1984-1989 experiment proved that the introduction of long- secret introvenous salivary glands of medicinal leeches to mice that were presented in conditions very last atherosclerosis has been a reduction in lung lipids and abdominal arteries . It is known that lipoproteids low density and low density lipoproteids greatly promoted the development of atherosclerosis , but the high density lipoproteids antisclerous protective factors play a role . On hearing the disease there ishemic redistribution of cholesterol in the different classes of lipoproteids density . Quantity in lipoproteids it raises low-density and very low density lipoproteids reduced resulting in high lipoproteids . In this group had increased levels of lipid authentic general , triglicerids , cholesterol on artery walls . Many writers are engaged in this sign authentically reduction problem triglicerids and cholesterol in the blood after a few sessions Hirudotherapy . This makes it possible to draw the conclusion that the secret lipotropic ensymes leech saliva drug can be used in the atherosclerotic vessel defects regardless of the primary localization of atherosclerosis . Perhaps the effect of " rejuvenation " can look after emergence Hirudotherapy shine in the eyes , skin elasticity improvement , flush appearance , loss of face mask fatigue in patients , strong sort of patient . That's possible because in this case we are dealing with an increase mechanism Vasku.

The nature of Leech Therapy.


The nature of Leech Therapy

leech mouth.

structure leech

Therapeutic properties Hirudotherapy ;

* Common reflexogenic : hypotension
* Bleeds : immunopotentiating
* Internal decongestion : bacteriostatic
* Anticoagulants : anti - inflammatory
* Protective antithrombotic : Local anti - edema
* Thrombolytic : analgesic
* Removal of microcirculation disorders : antiatherosclerotic
* Anti - ischemic : elimination of abnormal interactions between the system.

Doctor Miracle called leech .

Applied drugs have hundreds of years of experience in the fight against human disease . Tens of thousands of different mixtures , tablets , vaccines , drugs , etc. have been created - and they are all human treatment effects . And why professional doctors again and again apply to traditional methods of treatment rather old drug tested by our ancestors ? There is no secret that ... All of these methods are based on natural root . That is why we applied the medical center fashioned method " of treatment for hundreds of diseases ".

Hirudotherapy .

Hirudotherapy ( from Latin leech Hirudo - ) is known since ancient times . Along with general bloodletting , has been regarded as a necessary drug in the treatment of different diseases .
Secrets of the medical leech salivary gland contains more than 100 bioactive substances and has anti -inflammatory action , bacteriostatic , analgesic , completing , it eliminates the microcirculation disorders , vascular permeability restore damaged tissues and organs , eliminating hypoxia ( lack of oxygen ) , reducing blood pressure , improving the activity of the immune system , detoxifies the organism , releases from threatening complications , such as infarction , stroke , improving bioenergy status of the organism .
How confidential leech injection is very simple : placed on the skin to bite the skin , then the leech saliva secret falls into the bloodstream and go to the focus of the disease through the vessel .
In medicine we use hirudoreflexotherapy put leeches on reflexogenic point as " needle Life ".

Indications for treatment with medicinal leeches :

* Cardiovascular diseases , including essential hypertension and ischemic
   diseases , diseases phlebogene of the lower extremities ;
* Chronic bronchitis , pneumonia , bronchial asthma ;
* Digestive tract diseases ( hepatitis , cholecystitis , pancreatitis , gastric ulcer ) ;
* ENT Disease ;
* Paradontosis and other dental diseases ;
* Urological diseases ;
* Male sterility ;
* Skin diseases ( neurodermatitis , psoriasis , eczema , herpes ) ;
* Gynecological disorders ( commissural process in the small pelvis ,
* Female infertility ,
* Adnexitis chronic , parametritis ,
* Endometriosis , fibromastopathy ) ;
* Systemic diseases ( rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus ,
   scleroderma ) ;
* Osteochondrosis and radiculitis ;
* Eye diseases , including glaucoma ;
* Infantile cerebral paralysis ( ICP ) and other diseases .
* Therapy Hirudotherapy properties :

Blood shortage.

Leech therapy is always associated with a certain degree of blood loss , which is clinically irrelevant in most cases . In clinical trials by Michalsen , losses mean hemoglobin 0.7 mg / dL of blood loss , and clinically relevant not occur in any of the patients studied . However , there is a strong afterbleeding isolated observations with a decrease in hemoglobin value , especially in cases where the leech was accidentally applied directly to the superficial veins . According to the Essen-Mitte Hospital, clinically relevant decrease in hemoglobin (> 3 mg/dL) occurred after leech therapy in two patients , one of whom required blood transfusion ( after being treated with six leeches for osteoarthritis of the knee ) . Asked retrospective , one patient stated that he was , in his opinion , prolonged bleeding injuries in the past . In other cases , afterbleeding from leech bites lasted for 36 hours and must be stopped by skin sutures . extensive coagulation test is then performed but did not reveal any specific coagulation disorders . Prior to the occurrence of abnormal bleeding anamnestically seem important , and patients should be specifically questioned about the incident . Anticoagulants are drugs simultaneously important to see . If low-dose aspirin is prescribed in combination with other platelet aggregation inhibitors ( clopidogrel , Iscover , Plavix ) or high -dose fish oil ( Omacor ) , a small number of leeches ( 3-4 ) should be used initially. blood counts should always be obtained before the start of leech therapy. To reliably prevent the loss of the relevant amount of blood , the leech therapist should never use more than 12 twisters in a single treatment session.

Impaired Wound Healing , superinfection , and Allergies .

Once the leech drops off , the edge of the wound three branches generally swell during 12-48 hours accompanied by feelings of local tension , hot , and flushed . Small blood spots ( ecchymoses ) develop under the skin around the bite of a leech . larger collection of blood rarely develops . Such as superficial bruises , blood spots initially reddish purple , then turn yellowish , and finally disappeared in about two weeks . Localized inflammation , sometimes with papulous height of the bite site , is a relatively common problem that is often accompanied by itching . This inflammation usually subsides quickly when the ice and left . The cause of this disorder is unknown wound - healing . improper handling , especially early termination afterbleeding from wounds , leech head squeezed with pliers , strong deletion of leeches before finished eating , and the failure to keep the animals in freshwater , has frequently been implicated as a potential cause . However , it has also been observed to occur right after leech treatment in isolated cases . Theoretically, Aeromonas hydrophila local infection with a potential cause , but so far there is no evidence of microbiological presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in the wound fluid of affected patients . more severe local inflammation is most often caused by secondary wound contamination or irritation due to mechanical irritation , such as scratching and rubbing . Patients should be informed of the overall importance of protecting the wound from mechanical irritation . According to survey hospitals , more severe local inflammation occurs in three isolated cases : One patient developed erysipelas and two lymphangitis being developed . All cases resolved rapidly in response to treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics and / or gyrase inhibitors . Obedience localization contraindications and recommendations to minimize the risk of local inflammation . In case it is not clear where the progressive and painful skin redness develops , especially if it is associated with increased temperature , the leech therapist should know to administer antibiotics immediately . Pseudolymphomas may occur in rare cases , this is caused by efflorescences papulous reaction to arthropod bites leech . Currently , no data are used to assess the exact frequency of these side effects . To our knowledge , a total of three documented and confirmed cases have been reported .
It is difficult to distinguish the wound - healing secondary disturbance of potential allergic reactions . precise data on the frequency of allergic reactions to the bite of a leech is not available . Local itching , a common side effect of leeching , should not be construed as an allergic reaction . allergic reactions such as urticaria firmly while and locodistant swelling have been reported in a few isolated cases . However , local symptoms , reflex erythema and urticarial dermographism psychovegetatively unstable individuals have been studied more frequently . An older case reports describe the occurrence of short -term anaphylactic shock after six leeches applied to the temple area . Some experts manage systemic antihistamines leech therapy for the treatment of localized allergic reaction to ( empirical ) good success . However , response rates for both antihistamines are not evidence per se of allergens : A certain level of placebo response to antihistamines should also be taken into account . Which may be boosting existing antibiotics allergic to leech therapy is also proposed in case reports .
When interpreting a local reaction that occurs after leech therapy , it is important to remember that the protease in the saliva of leeches release various types of mediators nonimmunological . Furthermore , the reaction may be exacerbated by factors psychovegetative . All in all , there are only a few cases in which a relationship between leech therapy and the occurrence of allergic reactions has been proven with reasonable certainty . However , potential allergic reactions occur after exposure to any foreign protein . Contact dermatitis has also been observed after the use of leeches ointment .
Short-term reactive swelling and / or tenderness of the lymph nodes proximal have occasionally been reported , but most often in patients with delayed wound healing . This phenomenon has most often develops in the groin area after application of leeches for the treatment of knee joint, hip joint, or varicose veins. Quickly and smoothly loss swollen lymph nodes all of which are described in case reports.

Blood poisoning .

Sepsis due to systemic infection with Aeromonas hydrophila has been repeatedly observed after application of leeches in reconstructive surgery indications , but not in any of the other relevant fields used . This supports the conclusion that the risk of Aeromonas hydrophila sepsis increased only in patients with severe underlying disease or immunosuppression , which often occur in surgical candidates for leech therapy . Therefore we recommend concurrent antibiotic treatment for all surgical patients receiving leech therapy . In the rest of the field of use , the primary antibiotic therapy does not seem to be required in accordance with the current state of knowledge , but must be considered relevant contraindications.

Transmission of Infectious Diseases .

At this time , medicinal leeches are generally only used once . Therefore , there is no risk of indirect transfer of infectious diseases from one patient to another . Aeromonas hydrophila primary infection with clinically relevant only if the leech goes for transplant surgery . Concurrent antibiotic treatment therefore recommended for prophylaxis of infection in these cases ( see above ) . Transmission of pathogenic bacteria or other viruses to humans in the context of leech therapy has not been observed so far.

Scars.

If allowed , the former is usually rapid leech shrunk to hardly visible or invisible signs three small branches disappear completely within one to three weeks . However , if the impaired wound healing wounds due to scratching or secondary infections , scars will remain visible for a long time significantly . Papulous skin changes over the last few months have also been reported in isolated cases . In one case , a " reaction to arthropod " permanent also been reported after treatment leeches . Significant scarring may occur especially when leeches are applied to
areas with thin skin and a thin layer of subcutaneous tissue or joint area where the skin is constant movement . Wearing tight clothing after treatment , for example, around the knee , can also result in scar formation .
For aesthetic reasons , the control is recommended when using leeches in the face or in part apparent and other relevant cosmetics from the body . Here , we re- emphasize that it is necessary to thoroughly inform patients about the potential risks of treatment , including scar tissue , and to obtain written informed consent from the patient before going ahead with the treatment .

Safety and Side Effects Leech Therapy .

leech therapy rarely ever lead to serious complications . Local pain medication and short-term side effects itching usual . Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen-Mitte, especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease, is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack.

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .
Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen - Mitte , especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease , is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching. Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack .

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .

Medicinal leeches .

Approximately 600 species of leeches have been identified to date , but only about 15 are used in the treatment . Leeches classified as " medicinal leeches " , Hirudo medicinalis , in the narrow sense has been used to treat patients for centuries .
The first documented account of the use of Hirudo medicinalis for medicinal purposes dates back to the time of Hippocrates . According to Sanskrit writings , Dhavantari , the father of Indian medicine , held nectar in one hand and a leech on the other hand . Leech therapy is also used in traditional Chinese medicine . Paintings of medicinal leeches have been found in the tombs of pharaohs . The Solomon Parables also describe leech treatment use in ancient medicine . Leech therapy in the treatment of Greece can be found in the poem by Nicandros Alexipharmacia . The Roman physician Galen classified leech terapy as a method to achieve a healthy balance . Avicenna also used leeches for healing aids. In the past leeches have proven the most effective treatment in many cases. Leeches were especially useful in the treatment of battle wounds . European countries in the 18th and 19th centuries imported over 100 million leeches every year to meet the high demand .
Currently , doctors use leeches for treating abscesses , painful joints , glaucoma , myasthenia , and to heal venous diseases and thrombosis . Medical leeches are used in plastic surgery , to improve brain circulation and for the treatment of infertility .
Common indications for leech therapy are :
inflammatory reaction
Heart Disease
Rheumatic Diseases
Tendovaginitis and Tendinitis
Venous Disease and Varicose Veins
arthrosis
arthritis
muscle tension
Antidyscratic therapy ( blood purification and regeneration ) of toxicoses and mental illness
Thrombosis and embolism
Passive congestions and spastic conditions
Vertebrogenic Pain Syndromes
Transudates and exudates
A simple principle lies at the heart of all miracles - Hirudo . During feeding, leeches secrete a complex mixture of different biologically and pharmacologically active ingredients into the wound . Hirudin is the best known component of leech saliva . Hirudin is sometimes used to describe all the active substances in leech saliva . In fact , hirudin only refer to a particular active substance in leech salive . Component of leech saliva drug effects in the host's body is :
* Hirudin : Inhibits blood coagulation by binding to thrombin
* Calin : Inhibits blood clots by blocking the binding of von factors
   Willebrand for collagen . Inhibit collagen - mediated platelet aggregation
* Destabilase : Monomerizing activities . Soluble fibrin . effects of thrombolytic
* Hirustasin : Inhibits kallikrein , trypsin , chymotrypsin , cathepsin G
   neutropholic
* Bdellins : Anti - inflammatory . Inhibit trypsin , plasmin , acrosin
* Hyaluronidase : Increasing the viscosity of the interstitial . antibiotic
* Tryptase inhibitors : Inhibits proteolytic enzymes of host mast cells
* Eglins : Anti - inflammatory. Inhibit the activity of alpha - chymotrypsin,
   chymase, substilisin, elastase, cathepsin G
   Inhibiting Factor Xa inhibitors : coagulation factor xa activity by forming
   equimolar complex
* Inhibitors : Complementary May possibly replace natural complement
   inhibitors if they lack
* Carboxypeptidase : A inhibitors Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Histaminelike : vasodilator substances . Increases blood flow at the site of the
   bite
* Acetylcholine : vasodilator
* Subsctance anesthesia : anesthesia

Effects leech bites .

Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite,
only 90  % of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians , reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals ( including, but not limited to, humans ). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant ( hirudin ) that leeches secrete , bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned .
Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat . However , bacteria , viruses , and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months , and may be transmitted back to humans . A study found both HIV and hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon . ( Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used )
Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite, only 90% of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians, reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals (including, but not limited to, humans). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant (hirudin) that leeches secrete, bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned. Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat. However, bacteria, viruses, and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months, and may be transmitted back to humans.
A study found both HIV and hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon. (Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used). Thank you for reading this article .
Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: January 27, 2014 at 11:30
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Tag ; Leeches, Treatment.

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Monday, 8 February 2016

100 Years gifts.

The number 100 has a unique meaning if the number is juxtaposed with the word years. Like the 100 years that have meaning about life extraordinary achievement in human life, as well as on a theory in science. A theory is said to be "mature" if the age range has been proven and has wide applications.

2015 is a 100-year General Theory of Relativity which was pioneered by renowned scientist, Albert Einstein (1915). How can one make a theory to explain an unusual phenomenon we experience daily? How Einstein can know that the curved space-time due to the presence of objects that have a large mass?

Currently we can perhaps imagine the phenomenon of the curvature of space-time through visual images that are given in fiction films such as Star Trek, Star Wars, until Interstellar. Yes, in these films depicted how their planes can travel further by utilizing the curvature of spacetime. The question is, whether it exists or curvature only mathematical calculations Einstein?

Let us try to imagine and think! We are in a universe that contains a supermassive objects such as stars, black holes, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and others, how do we know if they warps space-time? Well, Einstein described the phenomenon in a mathematical formulation that became known as Einstein's equations, which are the main equations of general relativity.

Truth Theory of General Relativity was confirmed through a lot of astronomical observations, one of which is the phenomenon of gravitational lensing. This phenomenon can be strongly associated with the observed astronomical objects much for their curvature of space-time. The idea is basically that mass warps space-time.

The curvature of space-time tells how mass moves. Since light propagates in space-time, the light will follow the curvature of space-time itself. Just as the principle of the lens or mirror that focuses light, the masses also do so. This incident became known as gravitational lensing.

Keep in mind that long before Albert Einstein formulated the Theory of General Relativity, Sir Isaac Newton actually think about the influence of gravity (mass) of the behavior of light. In the publication "Opticks" in 1704, Newton said, "Do not Bodies act upon Light at a distance, and by Reviews their action bend its Rays; and is not this action (caeteris paribus) strongest at the least distance? "

In 1801, J. Soldner investigation in determining the angle position of the stars in the case of the deflection of light. From the results of the investigation to the region near the solar surface of the angles turn obtained using the formulation of 0.83 Newton-seconds of arc (1-degree-arc seconds = 3600).

It was only in 1911, with no associated with the work done by Soldner, Einstein obtain approximately the same results. Einstein equation lowering bending light path and get a turn angle of light that passes through an object with a mass at a certain distance and find the results of two times greater than previous results.

If we assume the mass of the sun as a lens, the angle beloknya amounted to 1.74 arc-seconds. In 1914, Einstein planning an observation during the solar eclipse in Russia, to clarify the results of the calculation of the value of the angle turn around the sun before. However, these plans have failed due to World War I. In 1919, Sir Arthur Eddington finally managed to confirm the results of the General Theory of Relativity is based on observations of a total solar eclipse in Principle Island Off West Coast, Africa.

Well, for friends who are curious about this matter can be repeated by observing the phenomenon of a total solar eclipse later date March 9, 2016 which can be seen from Indonesia. Essentially, the friends try to compare the position of the stars around the sun during an eclipse with the position in the sky approximately 6 months thereafter.

In 1937, Fritz Zwicky hypothesized that if there is a very massive object (in this case the size of a galaxy), the object should be a "natural telescope". Zwicky said that if the lens does exist in nature, meaning through a process of gravitational lenses it can be used to test the General Theory of Relativity, observe objects / distant galaxies, and determine the mass of the object that acts as a lens.

In 1979, the hypothesis proposed by Zwicky can be clarified by Walsh and Wayman through the invention of the first gravitational lens, the double quasar QSO J0957 + 561. Since then, research deflection of light by the gravitational lens continues to experience growth. Developments in technology and methods of observation, the better becomes the main supporting the discovery of many gravitational lenses today. Later, the gravitational lens is applied also to discover a new planet, knowing the structure of distant galaxies, and determines the distance.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/100-years-gifts.html
Date Published: February 08 2016 at 12:34
Tag : 100 Years gifts.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
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About rupiah.

Banknote Indonesia from time to time.
Rupiah is the official currency of Indonesia. This currency is printed and regulated use by Bank Indonesia with ISO code 4217 IDR. Informally, the Indonesian people also call this currency with the name "silver". One rupiah divided into 100 sen, although inflation has made it no longer used except in the listing on the books of banks.

History.

Rupiah name is often associated with the Indian rupee currency, but actually by Adi Pratomo, one historian Indonesian currency, the rupiah is taken from the word rupia in the Mongolian language. Rupia own means silver. It is the same as the meaning of the rupee, but the rupiah itself is the original pronunciation of Indonesia due to the addition of the letter 'h' at the end of the word rupiah, very typical as the pronunciation of the people of Java. This is slightly different than many thought that the rupiah is one of the units derived from the Indian currency. Indian Rupee actually be said to be a derivative of the word rupiah itself, so the Indonesian rupiah has not the same level as the unit derived from the Indian currency.
In the early days of independence, Indonesia has not in rupiah but using the official currency, known as the ORI. ORI has a duration of circulation in Indonesia for four years, ORI has put into use since 1945-1949. However, the use of legally ORI started since the launch of the currency by the government as a currency of Indonesia on October 30, 1946. In the early days, ORI printed by Printing Canisius with a shape and a very simple design and use fine fiber seat. It can even be said to ORI at that time was the currency that is very simple, sober, and tend to be less qualified, especially when compared with other currencies circulating in Indonesia. In the early days of independence, ORI circulated widely in the community even though the money is just printed in Yogyakarta. ORI has printed at least five times within a period of four years, among others, the mold I on October 17, 1945, series II on January 1, 1947, series III issued on July 26, 1947. At that time, ORI is a currency that has a value that is very lower when compared with money-money issued by de Javasche Bank. Whereas ORI money was scarce money that should be of high value.
On 8 April 1947, the governor issued rupiah Money Sumatra province of Indonesia Sumatra (URIPS). Since 2 November 1949, four years after independence, the Indonesian rupiah as the currency set a new nationality. Riau Islands and West Irian rupiah have their own variations, but its use was abolished in 1964 in Riau and West Irian 1974. The Asian economic crisis of 1998 caused the rupiah fell as much as 35% and brought the downfall of the Soeharto government. Currency is the currency that may be exchanged for free, but traded with a penalty due to high inflation levels.

Units under rupiah.

Rupiah has units underneath. In the early days of independence, the rupiah value equated with Gulden Indies, so it is also used units smaller prevailing in the colonial period. Here are the units that had been used, but is no longer used due to a decrease in the value of the rupiah cause the unit was not of significant value.

Rupiah redenomination.

Bank Indonesia as the monetary authority in Indonesia planning policy for the reduction of the value of the rupiah currency denomination without reducing its value by eliminating the last 3 digits 0 (X000 be x). This policy plan raised by Bank Indonesia in early May 2010 and confirmed by the elected Governor of BI, Nasution on July 31, 2010. This redenomination policy was taken after the results of World Bank research says that the denomination of Indonesian Rupiah 100,000 is the second largest in the world after Vietnamese Dong (VND) 500,000. Redenomination process will withdraw from the original plan would be realized on August 14, 2014.

The new money emission in 2014.

The original plan of Bank Indonesia rupiah meredenominasikan hampered global economic conditions are not stable and discussion Act Redenominasi stalled due to the 2014 election agenda original target realization of redenomination on August 14, 2014 will change the face of the new money, the money of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia (NKRI Money ).
As stipulated by Act No. 7 of 2011 concerning currency, the rupiah was placed as one of the symbols of state sovereignty must be respected and proud of all Indonesian citizens. Accordingly, Bank Indonesia will no longer be the sole institution authorized to print Rupiah. Later Bank Indonesia must always coordinate with the government, the ministry of finance in terms of a plan to print money, the issuance of money, up to the withdrawal and destruction of the old money.
Having no longer a single institution printer rupiah, Bank Indonesia phrase contained in any fractional amount will now be renamed the Republic of Indonesia. In addition, other changes will NKRI money is going to the signature of the Minister of Finance and Governor of Bank Indonesia and the new anti-counterfeiting security system on a banknote.

NAME RUPIAHS.

Rupiah is the official currency of Indonesia. Rupiah name is usually associated by many as the pronunciation of "rupee" Indian currency, but actually by Adi Pratomo, one of the researchers of history Indonesian currency, the rupiah is taken from the word rupia in the Mongolian language. Rupia own means silver. It is the same as the meaning of the rupee, but the rupiah itself is the original pronunciation of Indonesia due to the addition of the letter 'h' at the end of the word rupia, very typical as the pronunciation of the people of Java. This is slightly different than many thought that the rupiah is one of the units derived from the Indian currency. Indian Rupee actually be said to be a derivative of the word rupia itself, so the Indonesian rupiah has not the same level as the unit derived from the Indian currency.
In the early days of independence, Indonesia has not in rupiah but using the official currency, known as .. ORI ORI has a duration of circulation in Indonesia for four years, ORI has put into use since 1945-1949. However, the use of legally ORI started since the launch of the currency by the government as a currency of Indonesia on October 30, 1946. The ORI early printed by Printing Canisius with the shape and design very simple and using a safety delicate fibers. It can even be said to ORI at that time was the currency that is very simple, sober, and tend to be less qualified, especially when compared with other currencies circulating in Indonesia. In the early days of independence the ORI circulated widely in the community even though the money is just printed in Yogyakarta alone. ORI has printed at least five times within a period of four years, among others, the mold I on October 17, 1945, series II on January 1, 1947, series III issued on July 26, 1947. At that time, ORI is a currency that has a value that is very cheap when compared to the money-money issued by de Javasche Bank. Whereas ORI money was scarce money that should be of high value.
There are many real doubts about exactly how this currency started there and used as the official currency. In the aftermath of the inauguration of the rupiah is still one form of currency that could be used in Indonesia. This currency is a currency issued during the RIS known as currency RIS. This currency is entered in the history of the currency Rupiah Indonesia as a temporary replacement. After the RIS ended Indonesia's currency back into rupiah, but no definite sources that mention the exact time of the transition from RIS currency to the currency of rupiah. After the RIS the rupiah began to be used in general and start undergone many developments and improvements. Indonesia as the official currency, the rupiah was issued and controlled by Bank Indonesia. Moreover, since Bank Indonesia officially made the central bank and given full authority to regulate the country's banks on July 1, 1953. The amount was then given a code or symbols used on all denominations of banknotes and coins in the form of Rp and recognized by all parties.
Rupiah itself does not directly be spread evenly over the Earth Indonesia. Distribution of this currency is not so evenly distributed quickly. For example, the islands of Riau and Papua New in rupiah in 1964 and 1971. Since wearing rupiah as the official currency, the rupiah repeatedly experiencing turbulence. Devaluation and Pruning is always decorate the development of rupiah. The devaluation occurred in some periods for example on March 7, 1946, September 20, 1949, February 1952, September 1959, January 1963 and the end of 1964. Trimming the rupiah also occurred on the rupiah occurred on August 25, 1959 and March 29, 1983. change- changes in appearance, the value of the currency, shape, and even color coloring development of Indonesia's official currency. Starting from ORI shapes, drawings, prints, and the paper of poor quality until now bills already have a form and a luxurious appearance and tidy.
Rupiah has experienced a lot of times over the development of this nation. Rupiah is also developing follow future developments in Indonesia. He could not be considered as official currency when ORI became the currency that the government was inaugurated, he was replaced by currency RIS, but in fact the whole currency is actually a history of rupiah itself as an official currency of Indonesia. There have been many heroes, the area of ​​the archipelago, and the culture which is reflected in the currency. Already many series issued by the government to replace, repair, and enhance the pride of the country's currency. However, the rupiah is a mirror of the Indonesian nation. When you hear the word rupiah, the thing that immediately comes to mind is Indonesia, obviously because the Indonesian rupiah is yours alone and no other country has the rupiah. As one of the pride of the country, it should also be upheld rupiah. Rupiah are appropriately recognized, proud, and guarded by every citizen of Indonesia.

List named as the rupiah currency  :

Indian Rupee (रुपया)
Maldives Rufiyaa (ދިވެހި ރުފިޔ)
Rupee Mauritia (roupie)
Rupee Nepal (रूपैयाँ)
Pakistan Rupee (روپي)
Seychelles Rupee (roupi, roupie)
Sri Lanka Rupee (ரூபாய்)
Already not available.
Rupee Afghanistan
Rupee Bhutan
Rupee Burma
Indian Rupee Denmark
Rupee East Africa (British)
French Indian Rupee (roupie)
East African rupee (Germany) rupie
Gulf Rupee
Rupee Hyderabad
Rupia Italian Somaliland
Ripis Java
Roepiah Indies
Portuguese Indian rupia
rupiah Riau
Rupee Travancore
Rupiah Papua Barat
Rupee Zanzibar.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/about-rupiah.html
Date Published: February 08 2016 at 12:04
Tag : Rupiah.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
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Sunday, 7 February 2016

Snake wire.

 Snake wire.
Wire snake or serpent worms (Indotyphlops braminus) is one of the world's smallest snake. The names in the English language is the common blindsnake, Brahminy blindsnake, flowerpot snake, snake bootlace. In the Java language it is known as ulo duwel.

Identification.

I. Braminus of Timor-Leste.

Snake wire minuscule stature, appear to sparkle like a small piece of black wire. The body length of up to 20 cm, but rarely longer than 15 cm. Instead mostly about 10 cm or less.
His body was black, black, brown, gray or bluish. Generally darker in the dorsal (back) and younger in the ventral side (belly). Its tail is very short and in the end there is a similar runcingan thorns. Sometimes both ends (heads and tails) younger or whitish color.
His eyes were hidden and only visible as dark spots vaguely behind her head scales. Therefore, in English known as a blind snake (snakes blind). The scales that cover the midsection arranged in 20 rows, very delicate and any similar form in the dorsal and ventral.


Habits and ecology.

This snake is very similar worm, both body size and behavior. Often found under furniture, behind potted plants and in the yard, under rocks and rotten wood, this snake immediately flounder like a worm when disturbed. But if one looks closely, seen this snake has shiny scales and skin was not slimy.
Snake wire fond of such places to hunt for prey in the form of eggs of ants, termites and various other small insects, caterpillars and earthworms. His mouth was so small, and just enough to swallow prey that is also very small. Therefore their thought-prejudice people that snakes wire including a kind of snake is very poisonous and can be fatal human beings are simply unfounded myths. These snakes are not even able to bite people.
These snakes are thought to breed in parthenogenesis, ie snake eggs to develop into individuals without fertilized by the male snake. This suspicion arises because all these snake specimens collected turned out to be identified with the female sex. Another kind of snake is also known to have the ability of parthenogenesis is a snake sack Papua (Acrochordus arafurae).
The habit of these snakes that live underground (fossorial), size is very small, and the ability partenogenesisnya, making it easy to wire snake is widespread; population can be achieved with only a single snake specimen carried in soil in potted plants.

Deployment.

The spread of this snake is very broad in Africa (Zanzibar, Tanzania, Mozambique, Somalia, Cameroon, Benin, Togo, Ivory Coast). Madagascar, the Comoro islands, Mascarenes, Seychelles, Mauritius, Reunion, Rodrigues.
Tropical Asia (Arabic, Persia, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Indochina, southern China, southern Japan, Hongkong, Taiwan, the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands in the Indian Ocean).
Pacific (Guam, Solomon, New Caledonia, Hawaii), Mexico, Guatemala and the West Indies.
In Indonesia snake wires spread across the archipelago.


The kind that are related.

There are some many other wire snake species from the genera Typhlops in western Indonesia, Cyclotyphlops in Acutotyphlops in Sulawesi and Papua. Close relatives snake wire, namely ramphotyphlops lineatus (Schlegel, 1839), has a body length of up to about 48 cm and spread from Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra, Nias, Kalimantan, Java, West and Central.

In addition to body shape, behavior typhlopidae reptiles of the family is also briefly looked like an earthworm. Often hide under rocks, debris, and rotten wood, behind a potted plant or home furnishings. When you feel disturbed, Snake Wire will be squirming like a worm.

Food Wire Snake is eggs of small animals such as ant eggs, egg termites and other insect eggs. Excluding snakes are venomous or dangerous for humans. Even with a very small mouth, Snake Wire can not bite humans.

The population is not known for certain, but allegedly still very common (not rare) in various places. Therefore, these reptiles are not listed in the IUCN Red List (IUCN Redlist). Nor is listed in CITES Appendix. In Indonesia too Snake Wire excluding protected animals.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/snake-wire.html
Publiushed Date: 07 February 2016 at 16:52
Tag : Snake wire.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
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About Crabs.

Crab.
The crab is a beast member crustaceans decapod of upabangsa (infraordo) brachyura, which is known to have a "tail" which is very short (Greek: brachy = short, ura = tail), or the stomach (abdomen) is completely hidden under the chest (thorax ). Crab's body is protected by a very hard shell, composed of chitin, and armed with a pair of tweezers. The crabs are another name for crab.
Crab found in all the oceans of the world. There is also a freshwater and terrestrial crabs, particularly in tropical regions. Crab is a crab that live in marine waters and rarely rises to the beach, while the crab is a crab inhabitants of freshwater (rivers and lakes).
Crabs vary in size from the pea crab, a width of only a few millimeters, up to the Japanese spider crab, with a leg span of up to 4 m.

Anatomy.

True crabs have five pairs of legs; The first pair of legs is modified into a pair of claws and are not used to moving. In almost all kinds of crabs, except a few (eg, Raninoida), belly folded under the cephalothorax. Part crab mouth covered by maxilliped flat, and the front of the carapace does not form a long rostrum. Gills crabs are formed of flattened plates ( "phyllobranchiate"), similar to the gills of shrimp, but with a different structure.

Crab.

Yuyu is a kind of freshwater crab. The word is taken from the Java language. This freshwater crabs there are many kinds, and is often found in rivers, lakes and paddy fields; included in the trenches and muddy soil in the vicinity. In zoology, the types of crab are usually classified into Parathelphusidae tribe or Gecarcinucidae, superfamilia Gecarcinucoidea. Yuyu not rarely seen outside of the water. Unlike the sea crabs that a pair of flat-shaped hind legs, crab legs all have a pointed tip. Shell crab backs generally brownish, blackish to dark purple; often have indentations like former hooves trampled. Edge of the shell sometimes there who have some small spines.

Animal pests.

Some types of crab is a pest to farmers because it makes nest holes in the rice fields and the edge of the irrigation channels, and the leaking of water needed to irrigate the fields. Certain types of rice seedlings were also damaged, as well as Parathelphusa convexa, Bogoriensis P., and P. tridentata. Type Terrathelphusa (Perbrinckia) kuhli recorded once damaging the young tobacco plants in total in Banyumas.

Predators.

Yuyu many predators. Beavers, mice, lizards, and various species of water birds listed as natural enemies, which are crucial for controlling the crab population. In the area of ​​brackish water, frogs (Fejervarya cancrivora) and mangrove snake (Fordonia leucobalia) are known to prey on crab. Java Farmers often use animal meat as bait for rat poison fields.

Know Some crab species Toxic.

Talk about the crab, usually we will refer to the crabs that can be consumed, such as mud crab (Scylla spp.) Or crab (Portunus pelagicus). However, the real world is a lot of species of crab, both the crabs from the group brachyura or Anomura. Brachyura is a group of true crabs, have four pairs of legs motion fully developed, while Anomura is a group of crabs 'false', only has three pairs of legs fully developed motion - the fourth leg motion is very small or hardly visible.

Of all the species now known, in fact only a few that can be consumed. In fact, some species of crabs are known as the toxic species. Then, the question that then arises is, what is poisonous crab? Any toxic contained in the body of the crab? Furthermore, why the crabs become toxic? Let's look together the intricacies of toxins in crabs.

Toxins in the body of the crab.

Several types of known poisons contained in the body of the crab is domoic acid, Okadaic acid, Palytoxin, tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, surugatoxin, brevetoxin, nereistoxin, and gonyautoxin. Besides Palytoxin, all toxins are included in the group of neurotoxins, which is toxic to nerve cells in action, and usually interact with membrane proteins.

Domoic acid is a toxic acidic. The name 'domoic' comes from the word 'doumoi', the local term Japanese from red algae Chondria armata. According to Horner (published in 1996), these toxins are known to accumulate in tissues of crabs and shellfish.

Okadaic acid has a way of working that is similar to domoic acid. Okadaic term taken from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. However, producing this toxin that is actually a group of dinoflagellate algae. Nevertheless, it turns out this toxin can also be contained in the body of the crab.

Palytoxin first known there are fish that consume zoanthids Palythoa, anemone-like organisms. Palitoksin works by forming a new membrane channels that exceed normal that ion transport becomes uncontrolled and cause malfunction of cells and tissues.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was first detected in fish Tetraodontidae tribe. This poison is also a neurotoxin with a mechanism of inhibition of sodium ion transport.

Saxitoxin (STX) is a nonprotein toxic compound, is insoluble in water and also have an inhibitory effect of sodium ion transport. This toxin has an effect equivalent to TTX. According to Groves et al (1980), STS and TTX produced by the dinoflagellate, though can also be found on a wide variety of marine life.

Other toxins such as Neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), brevetoxin, Surugatoxin, Nereistoxin, and Gonyautoxin also a neurotoxin that can be found in the crab's body although in very small amounts. These toxins are also found in the bodies of other animals such as clams and marine worms.


Why do the crab becomes toxic?

If we look at the classification of toxins, it can be concluded that while the actual producer of these toxins is not a species of crab. Some species produce toxins even algae. So, how can the crabs become toxic?

Toxic crabs can be divided into two groups, namely toxic permanent (permanent toxicity properties) and temporary. The crabs are generally a member of the tribe Xanthidae. Crabs are known to be toxic permanent is Lopozozymus Pictor, Demania spp., Zosimus aeneus, Platypodia granulosa and Atergatis floridus. Meanwhile, crabs that are toxic Temporary example is Atergatis integerrimus and Atergatis spp. (All species except Atergatis Atergatis floridus). This temporary category crab toxic level of toxicity depends on habitat.

Until now there are at least two things that are believed to be the cause of the crabs become toxic, namely  :

(1) contamination and accumulation of toxins from food consumption,
(2) the effect of habitat (especially the presence of bacteria, algae and toxin-producing organisms).

Some studies in two or three decades ago mentioned that the main food source of dinoflagellate species are poisonous crabs, shellfish (bivalves and gastropods), worms (Polychaeta) as well as some species of algae. The consumption pattern of this kind can cause crabs accumulate these toxins because there are toxins such as TTX, STX and Okadaic acid produced by the dinoflagellate known.

How toxins from food can accumulate and why it did not cause toxicity in these crabs. The mechanism of exocytosis and endocytosis allegedly became a way for toxic substances accumulate in the body of the crab. Submitted that the toxic compound most commonly found in the liver and gonads crab intestine. Description of research Negri and Llewllyn that some species of the tribe Xanthidae has a defense mechanism against toxins (STX, TTX and turunanna). This mechanism is to produce proteins haemolimph are pharmacologically the same as saxiphilin, are compounds that can bind to toxins.

Habitat also affect the level of toxicity crab, especially crabs that are toxic temporary. The existence of algae, bacteria and toxin-producing organisms in a habitat can play an important role as a cause of crabs (as well as other animals such as shellfish and fish) become toxic. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp., Moraxella sp., And Acinetobacter sp. known also capable of producing STX and neoSTX autonomously. Another group of bacteria known to produce TTX Vibrionaceae. These bacteria can be associated with crab (eg symbiotic and living in the section below the crab carapace) and lead to increased toxicity of the crab.

Furthermore, harmful algal population explosion events (especially those that can produce toxins) in a crab habitat can also cause increased toxicity crab. Crabs Xanthidae tribes generally have behavioral 'lazy' to move so that the limited range area. If the habitat is undergoing toxin-producing algal bloom, nature 'lazy' This move will increase the chances of contamination and accumulation of toxic compounds in the body of the crab.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/about-crabs.html
Publiushed Date: 07 February 2016 at 12:52
Tag : Crabs.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 12:52

About Cockroaches.

Cockroaches.
Cockroaches, cockroach, or coro are insects (class Insecta) of the order Blattodea which consists of approximately 3,500 species in 6 familia. Cockroach found in almost all parts of the world, except in the polar regions.
Among the most notable species are the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, which has a length of 3 cm, the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, with a length of ± 1½ cm, and the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai, also with a length of about 1 ½ cm. Cockroaches are often regarded as pests in the building, although only a few of thousands of species of cockroaches that are included in this category.

Cockroach history.

According to historians animals, cockroaches have existed since 320 million years ago. They first present before the dinosaurs are believed appeared 250 million years ago. Unlike other animals, they are seen to have a form of evolution today.

Now cockroach meets all locations on Earth, even in Antarctica though! There are different kinds of cockroaches, there are at least 3500 types (according planetcocroach.com), other sources say even reach 5,000 species. They chose to live in damp places, such as garbage disposal, behind cabinets, even under the bed!

Its presence in the human community is not something to be expected. They are many, but not edible. If only edible, of course, hunger never existed in the world - anyway who also want to eat a cockroach. Instead, we hate it, avoid it, and some even fear him. I know people who macho, brave, wise, but afraid of cockroaches. Amusingly see their behavior when faced with a cockroach, haha.

Why Hated Cockroach.

Somehow, our perspective on the same cockroach: DISGUSTED! Perhaps because we know where they live. Or perhaps since birth we've had the same instinct to cockroaches: shocker! Going into this interesting research topic. Some babies can be sampled on this. But of course her parents would never permit because his parents knew it was disgusting cockroach. So, we will probably never know if these feelings of disgust towards cockroaches congenital or due to environmental influences.

Disgust, they should be cast! Murder cockroach is not only for reasons of disgust, but also for health reasons. Although there is no scientific proof that the body of a cockroach carrying infectious diseases to humans, but because of a cockroach likes to hang around in dirty (lots of germs) then automatic when he walked on top of the mattress we had dirt stuck to the top of the mattress pads. Still mending mattress, they can be washed. Instead of streets on our food, the food should be discarded.

Fact dirtiness cockroaches: cockroaches favorite food is garbage or leftover food, ie food-eating stale that is certainly a lot of bacteria and viruses. They taste their food with her legs. With legs that also they take a walk over your floor. Hiii, you can imagine how slovenly former step of the cockroach.

If you get a cockroach in your home, then you may not be quiet because it meant he had many friends. Cockroach always live in groups. When walking, they leave a trail that can be recognized by other cockroaches so that there will never be a cockroach is a stray. This ensures a cockroach to continue to live together, get a meal, and of course continue the descent.

The first miracle: geomagnetic.

But get rid of cockroaches is not easy thing. Menyambit with slippers clearly not the solution. At least he's only a short run - we not want to throw him out, but ended their lives! We often do is ferret cockroach so no one in sight. Once within the stampede, instantly trampled!

Cockroaches are very agile. It took some time before finally stamping on a cockroach were killed. In addition, imagine such a cockroach disgust trampled and remove fluid from the body making us often tread by not wholeheartedly - this contributes to why we often miss the mark stamping. However, the book thrown or hit with any wood, cockroach remains hard to kill. They were very agile, can be avoided with the right seemed to know where the attack is coming.

Agility cockroach became one subject of the research: why cockroaches can dodge attacks with ease. Cockroaches utilizing the earth's magnetic field (geomagnetic) to guide the movement as an online magazine Wired published science based on the report of the Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 212 Issue 21, November 1, 2009.

This study conducted a series of experiments to cockroaches in the electric field and radio waves. The researchers revealed that cockroaches can map the geomagnetic field as well as birds. This is not a cheesy science! Geomagnetic feel is already a surplus of insects, but this is not just a feeling, but look! And because they've inhabited this Earth 350 million years, this mapping system already spread all kinds of cockroaches! In other words, they are born already know what he looks like from the perspective of the Earth's geomagnetic field. Crazy!

Meaning: to kill him, for they are not agile. To make it agile, remove the geomagnetic field. To eliminate the geomagnetic field, destroy the Earth. Conclusion: to kill a cockroach, destroy the Earth.


The second miracle: blattabacterium.

Mapping the Earth's geomagnetic field is not the only advantages of a cockroach. A report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. 43, October 27, 2009, as reported in the online magazine Wired science says that there is a type of bacteria called blattabacterium capable of converting waste into nutrients needed to live cockroach. It makes cockroaches can survive from eating anything. Even crazier, was so efficient recycling system that bacteria do before, cockroaches do not need to pee!

The presence of these bacteria make a cockroach can live a simple, effective, and efficient. But on the other hand, cockroaches became very dependent on bacterial expected "perch" in the body of a cockroach 140 million years ago. If these bacteria die, the cockroach loses all capabilities associated with the body's metabolism. Cockroaches have lost the ability to metabolize itself.

Meaning: to kill a cockroach, please kill this blattabacterium. However, what poison that can effectively kill these bacteria? Scientists thought that these bacteria can mutate so resistant to the toxin given.


Facts to Know About the Cockroach.

Do not be afraid of cockroaches. If the fear of being increasingly attacked. Hard to put into practice? Heard it just has to make skin crawl, let alone confront directly.

Cockroaches including many of the most hated insects. Like in a dirty place so disgusting. Especially when it suddenly flat insects can fly up to you like a little monster, well, it's no wonder that so many phobia, especially women.


Some facts that you know why :

1. Cockroaches have a radar that could detect the fear experienced by
    people in sekitarnya.Kecoa have a nervous system and the system
    motor movement is astounding, and has a reaction speed
    very impressive, to escape from danger, including reaction
    attached to the object that has the fear him, as
    self-defense reaction of the cockroach.

2. Cockroaches located almost in all parts of the world, except in the polar
    regions.

3. Among the most notable species are the American cockroach (Periplaneta
    americana), which has a length of 3 centimeters (cm), German cockroach
    (Blattella germanica), with a length of ± 1.5 cm, and the Asian cockroach
    (Blattella asahinai), with about 1.5 cm long also. However, the most
    substantial in size may Australian burrowing cockroach can grow
    up to 9 cm.

4. According to the study, the cockroach has been on earth since 300 million
    years ago or older than the dinosaurs.
    When the family of giant reptiles extinct dinosaurs about 65 million years ago,
    cockroach family to survive until now. Biologists even
    estimates, in case of an atomic catastrophe on earth, one of the creatures
    life will still exist is a cockroach.

5. Speed ​​cockroach ran only about 5 kilometers per hour. Which is very
    Awesome is the reaction speed senso-motor system in
    responding to stimuli from the outside.

6. In the long evolutionary history, developed two systems senso-
    independent motor. That means, they can function in unison,
    or also serve each other without depending on the system.

Senso-motoric system first located in the head, with two antennas that function as tuning vibration. The second part of the hind legs that extend into the abdomen, with fine hairs, also serves a similar antenna.
If the vibration of a tuning system in the hind legs or antennae on the head gets a sudden stimulus, the reaction occurs only within 15-20 milliseconds or faster than the blink of an eye, the cockroach is already reacting a defense to save himself.

7. Two senso-motoric system cockroach separate and independent so that if one
    sabotaged or shut down the system, the other system is still active and
    function. In fact, cockroaches were beheaded still react as quickly as
    originally.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/about-cockroaches.html
Date Published: 07 February 2016 at 11:31
Tag : Cockroaches.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 11:31